Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes (Update).

  title={Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes (Update).},
  author={Sydne Newberry and Mei Chung and Paul Shekelle and Marika Suttorp Booth and Jodi L. Liu and Alicia Ruelaz Maher and Aneesa Motala and Mike Cui and Tanja Perry and Roberta M. Shanman and Ethan M. Balk},
  journal={Evidence report/technology assessment},
BACKGROUND In 2009, the Institute of Medicine/Food and Nutrition Board constituted a Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) committee to undertake a review of the evidence that had emerged (since the 1997 DRI report) on the relationship of vitamin D and calcium, both individually and combined, to a wide range of health outcomes, and potential revision of the DRI values for these nutrients. To support that review, several United States and Canadian Federal Government agencies commissioned a systematic… 

Consequences of Inadequate Intakes of Vitamin A, Vitamin B12, Vitamin D, Calcium, Iron, and Folate in Older Persons

Micronutrient deficiencies are a common and avoidable contributor to decreased quality of life and healthcare costs in the older persons and further research is needed to determine adequate intakes and innovative uses, including appropriate thresholds for improved health outcomes for this population.

Options for basing Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) on chronic disease endpoints: report from a joint US-/Canadian-sponsored working group123

A multidisciplinary working group sponsored by the Canadian and US government DRI steering committees met from November 2014 to April 2016 to identify options for addressing key scientific challenges encountered in the use of chronic disease endpoints to establish reference values.

Vitamin D: A Narrative Review Examining the Evidence for Ten Beliefs

Evidence shows that vitamin D supplementation provides some benefit in fracture prevention, particularly at a dose ≥800 IU and with calcium; a likely benefit in the rate of falls, though it is less clear whether the number of fallers changes; and a possible small relative reduction in mortality.

Calcium Supplements and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: What Do Clinicians and Patients Need to Know?

This study focuses on the published literature regarding the effects of calcium intake (from both dietary and supplemental sources) alone, because this aspect was not updated in the 2014 evidence report for the IOM dietary reference intake recommendations for calcium.

Vitamin D research and public health nutrition: a current perspective

The goal of this perspective is to inform researchers about the currently accepted assay methods and quality control procedures used to determine 25(OH)D concentrations and the most widely accepted criteria for establishing vitamin D status.

Screening for Vitamin D Deficiency in Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for vitamin D deficiency in asymptomatic adults.

Effect of Calcium Fortified Foods on Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

It is highlighted that calcium fortification leads to a higher calcium intake, small benefits in children’s height and bone health and also important evidence gaps for other outcomes and populations that could be solved with high quality experimental or quasi-experimental studies in relevant groups.

Vitamin D status in the United States, 2011-2014.

The prevalence of atrisk of vitamin D deficiency in the United States remained stable from 2003 to 2014; at risk of inadequacy declined; Persons with higher vitamin D dietary intake or who used supplements had lower prevalences of at riskof deficiency or inadequacy.

Effects of Supplemental Vitamin D on Bone Health Outcomes in Women and Men in the VITamin D and OmegA‐3 TriaL (VITAL)

  • M. LeBoffSharon H Chou J. Manson
  • Medicine
    Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • 2020
Benefits did not vary by sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, or 25(OH)D levels, and whether baseline FVD levels help to identify those more likely to benefit from supplementation warrants further study.



Dietary reference intakes for vitamin D: justification for a review of the 1997 values.

A working group of US and Canadian government scientists concluded that significant new and relevant research was available for reviewing the existing DRIs for vitamin D while leaving the decision of whether the new research will result in changes to the current DRIs to a future IOM-convened DRI committee.

Vitamin D – a systematic literature review for the 5th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

Results from this review support that the recommendation in NNR 2004 needs to be re-evaluated and increased for all age groups beyond 2 years of age.

Calcium intake in health maintenance – a systematic review

There is no need to change the Nordic recommendations for Ca intake, however, due to heterogeneity in the studies it is difficult to interpret the results and provide single summary statement.

Overview of the conference "Vitamin D and Health in the 21st Century: an Update".

The key findings, strength of the evidence, and research needs identified in the National Institutes of Health conference "Vitamin D and Health in the 21st Century: an Update," are summarized; a systematic evidence-based review; and a roundtable discussion held after the conference by scientists with relevant expertise are summarized.

Effectiveness and safety of vitamin D in relation to bone health.

The largest body of evidence on vitamin D status and bone health was in older adults with a lack of studies in premenopausal women and infants, children and adolescents, and there was fair evidence of an association between low circulating 25(OH)D concentrations and established rickets.

EURRECA—Estimating Vitamin D Requirements for Deriving Dietary Reference Values

The aims of the vitamin D-related activities in EURRECA were formulated to address knowledge requirements that would complement the activities undertaken by the IOM and provide additional resources for risk assessors and risk management agencies charged with the task of setting dietary reference values for vitamin D.

Optimal vitamin D status: a critical analysis on the basis of evidence-based medicine.

Recommendations for a daily intake of 1500-2000 IU/d or serum 25OHD levels of 30 ng or higher for all adults or elderly subjects, as suggested by The Endocrine Society Task Force, are premature.

Vitamin and mineral supplements and thyroid cancer: a systematic review

It is suggested that the current evidence to support any protective or hazardous effect of vitamin or mineral supplements on thyroid cancer development is inconclusive and additional studies addressing previous limitations are necessary to elucidate this possible association.

An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of vitamin D food fortification.

Safe and effective food-based strategies could increase 25(OH)D across the population distribution and prevent vitamin D deficiency with potential benefit for public health.