Vitamin D Bioavailability: State of the Art

  title={Vitamin D Bioavailability: State of the Art},
  author={Patrick Borel and Dominique Caillaud and No{\"e}l J M Cano},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition},
  pages={1193 - 1205}
There has been renewed interest in vitamin D since numerous recent studies have suggested that besides its well-established roles in bone metabolism and immunity, vitamin D status is inversely associated with the incidence of several diseases, e.g., cancers, cardio-vascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Surprisingly, there is very little data on factors that affect absorption of this fat-soluble vitamin, although it is acknowledged that dietary vitamin D could help to fight against… 

Absorption and metabolism of vitamin D in health and in gastrointestinal tract diseases

There is evidence that vitamin D deficiency can be directly related to the severity of the disease, and partly to the etiology or pathogenesis of the diseases itself, so oral supplementation may be an effective and safe approach to improving vitamin D status.

Vitamin D Sources, Metabolism, and Deficiency: Available Compounds and Guidelines for Its Treatment

Studies on vitamin/hormone D deficiency have received a vast amount of attention in recent years, particularly concerning recommendations, guidelines, and treatments. Moreover, vitamin D’s role as a

Vitamin D: sources, physiological role, biokinetics, deficiency, therapeutic use, toxicity, and overview of analytical methods for detection of vitamin D and its metabolites

For monitoring vitamin D, several analytical methods are employed, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed in detail in this review.

Vitamin D: Nutrient, Hormone, and Immunomodulator

Experimental data and clinical observations confirm that vitamin D and VDR signaling together have a suppressive role on autoimmunity and an anti-inflammatory effect, promoting dendritic cell and regulatory T-cell differentiation and reducing T helper Th 17 cell response and inflammatory cytokines secretion.

Vitamin D Metabolism and Guidelines for Vitamin D Supplementation.

  • I. Ramasamy
  • Medicine, Biology
    The Clinical biochemist. Reviews
  • 2020
It was not possible to establish a range of serum 25(OH)D concentrations associated with selected non-musculoskeletal health outcomes, and future studies need to be on infants, children, pregnant and lactating women, to recommend treatment targets.

Functional effects of vitamin D: From nutrient to immunomodulator

The aim of this comprehensive literature review was to describe the most relevant findings of vitamin D dietary sources, absorption, synthesis, metabolism, and factors that influence its serum status, signaling pathways, and biological effects of this immunonutrient in the health and disease.

Dietary Sources of Vitamin D, Vitamin D Supplementation, and Its Bio-Viability

The focus of this paper is to review the data on the dietary sources of vitamin D, vitamin D supplementation and its bio-viability as well as dietary supplements and endogenous synthesis under the UVB radiation in the skin.

Drug Delivery Systems for Vitamin D Supplementation and Therapy

The diversity of drug delivery systems that have been reported for VD or VD derivatives in an orderly manner are presented across the following categories: Oral administration, application on the skin, cancer prevention/therapy, and other diseases or routes of administration.

Role of Vitamin D For Oral Health and Overall Health

Vitamin D deficiency patients are identified in various medical fields and it is necessary to understand the symptoms, pathophysiology and therapeutic measures to overcome the deficiency of this vitamin in various age groups from pediatric to geriatric.

Efficiency of Vitamin D Supplementation in Healthy Adults is Associated with Body Mass Index and Baseline Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level

A randomized controlled intervention study conducted in Slovenia during wintertime on 105 apparently healthy subjects with suboptimal VitD status, finding that tested dosage was not sufficient to achieve recommended 25-OH-VitD levels in all subjects.



Phytosterols can impair vitamin D intestinal absorption in vitro and in mice.

The present data suggest for the first time that phytosterols can interact with vitamin D(3) intestinal absorption and can be explained by a competition for micellar incorporation and for apical uptake.

Vitamin D in the New Millennium

Evidence overwhelmingly indicates that supplemental doses greater than 800 IU/day have beneficial effects on the musculoskeletal system, improving skeletal homeostasis, thus leading to fewer falls and fractures, and the definition of sufficiency is supported.

Effect of varying vitamin D status in the body on intestinal absorption and metabolism of vitamin D in the rat liver

It is supposed that both absorption of the vitamin in the intestine and its 25-hydroxylation in hepatocytes may decrease with a rise of theitamin D3 amount, which activates a mechanism of protection from the vitamin D redundancy.

[Effect of varying vitamin D status in the body on intestinal absorption and metabolism of vitamin D in the rat liver].

It is supposed that both absorption of the vitamin in the intestine and its 25-hydroxylation in hepatocytes may decrease with a rise of theitamin D3 amount, which activates a mechanism of protection from the vitamin D redundancy.

Dietary carotenoids and their role in combating vitamin A deficiency: a review of the literature.

It is too early to draw firm conclusions about the role of carotene-rich fruits and vegetables in overcoming vitamin A deficiency, and studies are required to quantify the impact of the matrix, host-related factors and absorption modifiers.

Bioavailability and efficacy of vitamin D2 from UV-irradiated yeast in growing, vitamin D-deficient rats.

Vitamin D2-rich yeast baked into bread is bioavailable and improves bone quality in vitamin D-deficient animals, and the highest doses had significantly greater trabecular BMC, BMD, bone volume, and connectivity density, and greater midshaft total cross-sectional area.

Bioavailability of vitamin D from fortified process cheese and effects on vitamin D status in the elderly.

It is demonstrated that vitamin D in fortified process cheese is bioavailable, and that young and older adults have similar absorption, and vitamin D2 was absorbed more efficiently from cheese than from water.

Type of dietary fat is associated with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 increment in response to vitamin D supplementation.

The fat composition of the diet may influence the 25OHD response to supplemental vitamin D(3) supplements in healthy older adults and diets rich in MUFA may improve and those rich in PUFA may reduce the effectiveness of vitamin D-3 supplements inhealthy older adults.

Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity.

Obese subjects had significantly lower basal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and higher parathyroid hormone concentrations than did age-matched control subjects and the incremental increase in vitamin D(3) was 57% lower in obese than in nonobese subjects.

Effect of age on the intestinal absorption of vitamin D3-palmitate and nonesterified vitamin D2 in the term human infant.

The data indicate that both forms of the orally administered vitamin approach equivalency in their abilities to elevate circulating vitamin D levels in the human infant at a postnatal age of approximately 89 days would appear not to be dietarily equivalent to free vitamin D as a nutritional source of vitamin D in thehuman neonate.