Vitamin D: A millenium perspective

@article{Holick2003VitaminDA,
  title={Vitamin D: A millenium perspective},
  author={Michael F Holick},
  journal={Journal of Cellular Biochemistry},
  year={2003},
  volume={88}
}
  • M. Holick
  • Published 1 February 2003
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Vitamin D is one of the oldest hormones that have been made in the earliest life forms for over 750 million years. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, and most plants and animals that are exposed to sunlight have the capacity to make vitamin D. Vitamin D is critically important for the development, growth, and maintenance of a healthy skeleton from birth until death. The major function of vitamin D is to maintain calcium homeostasis. It accomplishes this by increasing the efficiency of the intestine to… 
Evolution and function of vitamin D.
  • M. Holick
  • Medicine, Biology
    Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progres dans les recherches sur le cancer
  • 2003
TLDR
The insights into the new biological functions of 1,25(OH)2D in regulating cell growth, modulating the immune system andmodulating the renin-angiotensin system provides an explanation for why diminished sun exposure at higher latitudes is associated with increased risk of dying of many common cancers, developing type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis, and having a higher incidence of hypertension.
Vitamin D: part I; from plankton and calcified skeletons (500 million years ago) to rickets
TLDR
The vitamin D history started early in the evolution of life as a photochemical reaction producing an inert molecule, which became essential for calcium and bone homeostasis of terrestrial animals and arrived to the status of hormone.
Vitamin D in plants: a review of occurrence, analysis, and biosynthesis
TLDR
The current knowledge on sterol biosynthesis leading to provitamin D is summarized and perspectives for a future production of vitamin D biofortified fruits, vegetables, and fish will be presented.
Vitamin D in the Context of Evolution
TLDR
For at least 1.2 billion years, eukaryotes have been able to synthesize sterols and, therefore, can produce vitamin D when exposed to UV-B, which enabled vitamin D to modulate the energy-consuming processes of the innate immune system in its fight against microbes.
Vitamin D: an ancient hormone
  • D. Bikle
  • Biology
    Experimental dermatology
  • 2011
TLDR
It is made the case that vitamin D signalling evolved to enable the organism to effectively regulate calcium flux, storage and signalling and that such regulation is critical for the evolutionary process.
Vitamin D: The secosteroid hormone and human reproduction
  • F. Pérez-López
  • Medicine
    Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • 2007
TLDR
It is advisable for pregnant and nursing women to maintain adequate levels of vitamin D, through small doses of solar exposure to facilitate natural formation of the hormone or by ingesting appropriate vitamin supplements.
Vitamin D: calcium and bone homeostasis during evolution.
TLDR
The vitamin D story thus started as inert molecule but gained an essential role for calcium and bone homeostasis in terrestrial animals to cope with the challenge of higher gravity and calcium-poor environment.
The significance of vitamin D for fish: a review.
TLDR
The vitamin D receptor profile, receptor distribution and responses to vitamin D are reviewed for the key target tissues (gill, intestine, kidney and bone), and the dietary requirement of vitamin D in aquaculture is reviewed and some lesser known functions of the vitamin D endocrine system are addressed.
The Vitamin D System in Humans and Mice: Similar but Not the Same
TLDR
Significant amounts of data regarding the role of vitamin D, its metabolism and VDR have been provided by research performed using mice, and there are differences in composition and regulation of the VDR gene and its expression are discussed in this article.
Vitamin D: Deficiency, Diversity and Dosage
TLDR
The assumption that vitamins D2 and D3 have equal nutritional value is probably wrong and should be reconsidered, and there is evidence that D3 is more efficiently utilized in chicks and, more to the point, in humans.
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