Vitamin C Transporters, Recycling and the Bystander Effect in the Nervous System: SVCT2 versus Gluts

Abstract

Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient in the human diet; its deficiency leads to a number of symptoms and ultimately death. After entry into cells within the central nervous system (CNS) through sodium vitamin C transporters (SVCTs) and facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), vitamin C functions as a neuromodulator, enzymatic cofactor, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger; it also stimulates differentiation. In this review, we will compare the molecular and structural aspects of vitamin C and glucose transporters and their expression in endothelial or choroid plexus cells, which form part of the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, respectively. Additionally, we will describe SVCT and GLUT expression in different cells of the brain as well as SVCT2 distribution in tanycytes and astrocytes of the hypothalamic region. Finally, we will describe vitamin C recycling in the brain, which is mediated by a metabolic interaction between astrocytes and neurons, and the role of the "bystander effect" in the recycling mechanism of vitamin C in both normal and pathological conditions.

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@inproceedings{Nualart2014VitaminCT, title={Vitamin C Transporters, Recycling and the Bystander Effect in the Nervous System: SVCT2 versus Gluts}, author={Francisco Nualart and Lauren Mack and Andrea Garc{\'i}a and Pedro Cisternas and Ernesto R Bongarzone and Marjet Heitzer and Nery A Jara and Fernando Jose Martinez and Luciano E Ferrada and Francisca Espinoza and Victor Baeza and Katterine A Salazar}, booktitle={Journal of stem cell research & therapy}, year={2014} }