Vitamin A in the urine of carnivores.

@article{Schweigert1991VitaminAI,
  title={Vitamin A in the urine of carnivores.},
  author={Florian J. Schweigert and Estela B. Thomann and Hermann Zucker},
  journal={International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition},
  year={1991},
  volume={61 2},
  pages={
          110-3
        }
}
Vitamin A levels (retinol equivalents) in the urine of canines were between 423 ng/ml (dog) and 6304 ng/ml (silver fox). Neither vitamin A nor vitamin E was found in the urine of herbivores, omnivorous and rodents. No vitamin A but low levels of vitamin E were detected in cats. Vitamin A in the urine was present as retinol and retinyl esters (basically retinyl palmitate/oleate). The total excretion of vitamin A represented 15 to 63% of the daily uptake in dogs, while less than 4% of vitamin E… CONTINUE READING