Vitamin A in the Retina

@article{Wald1933VitaminAI,
  title={Vitamin A in the Retina},
  author={G. Wald},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1933},
  volume={132},
  pages={316-317}
}
  • G. Wald
  • Published 1933
  • Chemistry
  • Nature
I HAVE found vitamin A in considerable concentrations in solutions of the visual purple, in intact retinas, and in the pigment-choroid layers of frogs, sheep, pigs and cattle. The non-saponifiable extracts of these eye tissues display in detail all of the characteristics of vitamin A-containing oils. 
VITAMIN A IN EYE TISSUES
  • G. Wald
  • Medicine
  • The Journal of general physiology
  • 1935
TLDR
With the possible exception of hepaxanthin, no other carotenoids were found in the mammalian tissues and the vitamin was identified by its specific absorption at 328 mµ and the blue color yielded with antimony trichloride. Expand
Carotenoids and the Vitamin A Cycle in Vision
TLDR
The carotenoids of the frog's eye in detail are examined in detail to report the occurrence of vitamin A in the eye tissues of the frogs and several mammals. Expand
CAROTENOIDS AND THE VISUAL CYCLE
  • G. Wald
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of general physiology
  • 1935
TLDR
Isolated retinas which have been bleached and allowed to fade completely contain several times as much vitamin A as retinas from light adapted animals, so the visual purple system therefore expends vitamin A and is dependent upon the diet for its replacement. Expand
Retinoic acid: A general overview
TLDR
Retinoic acid history, its relation to other biological forms of vitamin A, absorption and transport, metabolism and some factors which mediate the intracellular binding protein are reviewed. Expand
The visual pigments of freshwater fishes.
TLDR
Dark-adapted retinae from 59 species of freshwater fishes were extracted in digitonin and analyzed for visual pigment content using the method of partial bleaching to show that the classic view of visual pigment distribution among vertebrates is erroneous. Expand
On the ‘Discovery’ of Vitamin A
  • R. Semba
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism
  • 2012
TLDR
The characterization of vitamin A spanned a period of about 130 years and was known as ‘fat-soluble A’ in 1918 and then ‘vitamin A” in 1920 and further work on the role ofitamin A in immunity and child survival continued until through the 1990s. Expand
Spontaneous Regeneration of Rhodopsin in the Isolated Rat Retina
Regeneration of rhodopsin, which completes the rhodopsin cycle described in the following article, occurs spontaneously if the retina of the rat is isolated and sealed in a small chamber.
VITAMINS: CLINICAL EVIDENCE OF NECESSITY OF VITAMINS FOR FUNCTION OF OCULAR TISSUE
TLDR
Many years before the discovery of the vitamins, the belief was widely held that a perfect diet consisted of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and inorganic salts, but scientific investigators have somewhat altered this conception by demonstrating that animals fed these energy-producing substances cannot maintain growth and health if the materials used are chemically pure. Expand
The Centennial of Vitamin A: A Century of Research in Retinoids and Carotenoids
  • U. Hámmerling
  • Medicine
  • FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 2013
TLDR
It took another 20 yr for Paul Karrer to solve the structure of vitamin A, establish its chemical kinship with carotenoids, and set the stage for an ever-expanding interest in its functions (Table 1). Expand
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References

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Isomeric Forms of Carotene and the Further Purification of Vitamin A
CALCIUM hydroxide or calcium monoxide are splendid adsorbents for carotene. One chromatographic adsorption suffices to bring about a complete separation of α- from β-carotene. The α-form has thusExpand