A cross-sectional survey was performed to examine the vitamin A, B1 and C status and relating factors among the elderly aged over 65 years and living alone in the western parts of Hachioji, Tokyo. Of 159 subjects, 17 men and 81 women participated in this survey. A questionnaire and interview on the socioeconomic conditions, state of health and life-style and easting habits, and a medical examination were conducted and blood collected and analyzed. Vitamin A, B1 and C status was evaluated on the basis of serum vitamin A concentration, whole blood vitamin B1 concentration and serum vitamin C concentration, respectively. Most of the participants were those who were comparatively active in daily life. Thirty-three percent of the participants were assessed to be in poor vitamin B1 status, while 1% and 4% were assessed to be in poor vitamin A and C status, respectively. Significant correlations were found between whole blood vitamin B1 and serum vitamin A concentrations and between whole blood vitamin B1 and serum vitamin C concentrations. About 10% of the participants had blood vitamin B1 concentrations as below 35 ng/ml and at the same time, significantly lower serum vitamin A and C concentrations than others. Thus, inadequate nutrient intakes or inappropriate diet intakes were suggested as a cause. While good vitamin status was linked with use of vitamin preparations or vitamin supplements, lowered vitamin status was found to be closely associated with such dietary practices or behavior as dietary indifference to food combinations, a higher preference of rice as the staple food and having a reported difficulty in preparing meals.