Visuospatial functions are very important in learning process and development of abstract thought during childhood. Several studies show that preterm and low birth weight infants obtain lower scores in test that assess cognitive functions, specially in the first year of life. These differences are attenuated over time, but a developmental delay that affects working memory and visuospatial process still persists. It is unclear what factors are involved in development of these functions, and pre- or perinatal factors may interfere with the proper conduct of the same, but have been described anatomical and physiological differences between the preterm and term brain that could explain somewhere in these alterations. The different selective vulnerability to hypoxia between immature brain in which preoligodendrocytes and subplate neurons predominate, and mature brain, determine differences in the pattern of injury from hypoxia with greater involvement of the periventricular white matter in preterm children. This lesional pattern leaves to a dysfunction in attentional and visuospatial process, due to the increased vulnerability of the regions involved in the dorsal pathway of visual processing.