PURPOSE To report outcomes and prognostic factors after epiretinal membrane peeling in patients with previous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair. METHODS A consecutive case series. Best-corrected visual acuity and optical coherence tomography characteristics were analyzed before and after epiretinal membrane surgery. RESULTS Fifty-three eyes were analyzed. Best-corrected visual acuity improved by a mean of 10 letters at 1 month (N = 45; P = 0.001), 15 at 3 months (N = 42; P < 0.001), 11 at 6 months (N = 35; P = 0.001), and 16 at 12 months (N = 33; P < 0.001). The mean optical coherence tomography central foveal thickness decreased by 141 (N = 22; P < 0.001), 185 (N = 24; P < 0.001), 180 (N = 17; P = 0.001), and 151 μm (N = 9; P = 0.017) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Better preoperative best-corrected visual acuity correlated with better best-corrected visual acuity at all follow-up visits (P ≤ 0.001). Intact preoperative inner segment/outer segment junction and external limiting membrane line, but not the change in central foveal thickness or location of fluid, correlated with better postoperative best-corrected visual acuity through 6 months. CONCLUSION Epiretinal membrane peeling after previous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair resulted in significant improvements in visual acuity and optical coherence tomography thickness, even in eyes with previous macula-involving rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Better preoperative visual acuity and intact outer retinal layers by optical coherence tomography were the main prognostic factors for visual outcomes.