Vision of the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) in air and water

@article{Sivak1987VisionOT,
  title={Vision of the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) in air and water},
  author={J. Sivak and H. Howland and Patricia McGill-Harelstad},
  journal={Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences},
  year={1987},
  volume={229},
  pages={467 - 472}
}
Refractive states measured by retinoscopy and photorefraction indicate that the eyes of the Humboldt penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, are approximately emmetropic in air and water. Extensive myopia in air, as predicted by earlier authors and by a recent anatomical study, is non-existent. Photorefractive measurements of the refractive state, in water, of the Humboldt penguin indicate that it can accommodate sufficiently to make up the loss of the refractive power of the cornea. The cornea of the… Expand
Intraocular Pressure in Captive Black-footed Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) Measured by Rebound Tonometry
Corneal power and underwater accommodation in great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis)
Determination of Tear Production and Intraocular Pressure With Rebound Tonometry in Wild Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti)
Evaluation of refractive value by skiascopy in healthy Beagles.
Ocular Bacterial Flora, Tear Production, and Intraocular Pressure in a Captive Flock of Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti)
  • R. L. Swinger, J. Langan, R. Hamor
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
  • 2009
The Visual Ecology of Avian Photoreceptors
  • N. Hart
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
  • 2001
Visual accommodation and active pursuit of prey underwater in a plunge-diving bird: the Australasian gannet
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-9 OF 9 REFERENCES
The eye of the humboldt penguin, Spheniscus humboldti: visual fields and schematic optics
  • G. Martin, S. R. Young
  • Geography, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1984
Penguin vision in air and water
Photorefraction: a technique for study of refractive state at a distance.
Optics of photorefraction: orthogonal and isotropic methods.
A simple photokeratoscope.
  • J. Sivak
  • Medicine
  • American journal of optometry and physiological optics
  • 1977