Vision Substitution by Tactile Image Projection

  title={Vision Substitution by Tactile Image Projection},
  author={Paul Bach-y-Rita and Carter Collins and Frank A. Saunders and Benjamin W. White and Lawrence A. Scadden},
WE describe here a vision substitution system which is being developed as a practical aid for the blind and as a means of studying the processing of afferent information in the central nervous system. The theoretical neurophysiological basis1 and the physical concept of the instrumentation2 have been discussed previously, and results obtained with preliminary models have been briefly reported3. A detailed description of the apparatus will appear elsewhere (manuscript in preparation). 

Neurophysiological Basis of a Tactile Vision-Substitution System

With the TVSS, the information from a TV camera is carried to the brain by means of the tactile receptors in the skin of the back and their neural pathways, which produces subjective impressions in blind subjects that are analogous to the visual input in normal sighted people.

Tactile vision substitution: past and future.

The theoretical basis for sensory substitution is examined primarily in regard to the capacity of the somatosensory system to mediate high resolution "visual" information.

Visual Substitution Systems: Control and Information Processing Considerations

A detailed discussion of the visual mechanisms found in the higher vertebrates is used as the basis for exploring the problems found in creating visual substitution systems. Specific attention is


A tactile vision substitution system based on 48 piezoelectric actuators assembled in a movable tactile output unit that can be positioned at any location on a two dimensional surface to explore the line structure of a virtual image.

Seeing with the skin

After surprisingly little training, Ss are able to recognize common objects and to describe their arrangement in three-dimensional space and achieve external subjective localization of the percepts when given control of the sensing and imaging device, a television camera.

Plastic Brain Mechanisms in Sensory Substitution

Development of a tactile vision substitution system (TVSS) to present pictorial information to the blind, in which optical images picked up through a television camera are presented as a two-dimensional pattern of pulses to a mosaic of stimulators arranged on the skin of the trunk.

Tactile Vision Substitution: Some Instrumentation and Perceptual Considerations

The development of various sensory substitution devices and aids for the blind has been based on the notion that the human perceptual systems are remarkably flexible in their functional capacities

A brief taxonomy of tactile illusions and demonstrations that can be done in a hardware store

Design of Sensory Substitution Systems for the Blind

This paper presents a new approach, pioneered by Brindley and Lewin (1968), to bypass the impaired visual receptor organ (eye) by electrical stimulation of the visual cortex.

Sensory Substitution of Vision by Audition

A visual prosthesis is an artificial system controlled by blind subjects enabling them to interact with spatial aspects of the environment that are normally visually perceived, and direct input of the prosthesis to some part of the visual modality has been studied.



The aim of this paper is to examine the evidence for plasticity as a fundamental basis for the development of a high resolution vision substitution system.