Viscosity of Liquid Helium below the λ-Point

  title={Viscosity of Liquid Helium below the $\lambda$-Point},
  author={Piotr Leonidovich Kapitza},
THE abnormally high heat conductivity of helium II below the λ-point, as first observed by Keesom, suggested to me the possibility of an explanation in terms of convection currents. This explanation would require helium II to have an abnormally low viscosity; at present, the only viscosity measurements on liquid helium have been made in Toronto1, and showed that there is a drop in viscosity below the λ-point by a factor of 3 compared with liquid helium at normal pressure, and by a factor of 8… Expand
The Super-Fluidity of Liquid Helium II
THE study of the properties of liquid helium has been very fruitful in revealing unexpected phenomena—super-conductivity, abnormally high thermal conductivity, super-fluidity and others. Of these,Expand
The viscosity of liquid helium between 2 and 5° K
  • R. Bowers, K. Mendelssohn
  • Chemistry
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1950
The viscosity of liquid helium has been measured with a flow method between 2 and 5° K . The coefficient of viscosity decreases with decreasing temperature over the whole range. A particularlyExpand
Viscosity of Liquid Helium II
IN recent experiments on the flow of liquid helium II through very small openings, carried out by Allen and Misener1, and by Kapitza2, an upper limit to the viscosity was placed at 10−9 C.G.S. units,Expand
On the irreversible processes in liquid helium II
Abstract It is pointed out that the two-fluid model can account for a number of the peculiar properties of liquid helium II. An attempt is made to use this model, in the form proposed by T i s z a,Expand
Preliminary Measurements on Grid Turbulence in Liquid 4He
Abstract A grid has been pulled through a column of liquid helium at speeds as high as 1 m/s and at temperatures as low as 90 mK. A 300 micrometer Ge thermometer with response time of less than 1 msExpand
A Ponderomotive Effect associated with the Flow of Heat through Liquid Helium II
It has recently been suggested1,2 that liquid helium II shows a certain similarity with a Knudsen gas, the atoms moving with a very long mean free path. From the formula which is quite general (l isExpand
Experiments with Liquid Helium II
N. Körti, B. V. Rollin and F. Simon1 found that below the λ-point liquid helium slips over the surface of the tube lowered into it. They observed this phenomenon by increasing the flow of heat alongExpand
On the existence of critical velocities in liquid helium II
Synopsis The friction forces, occurring in liquid helium II, are studied especially at low velocities in order to obtain information about the possible existence of a critical velocity. It wasExpand
Further Experiments on Liquid Helium II
IN a previous note1, we reported our investigation of the formation of a thin film of liquid helium II on the walls of a tube which is in contact with it. A very rough estimation of the thickness ofExpand
Chapter III Transport Phenomena of Liquid Helium II in Slits and Capillaries
Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the transport phenomena of liquid helium II in slits and capillaries. The bulk flow through slits and capillaries under the influence of pressure andExpand


The viscosity of liquid helium
It is a well-known fact that liquid helium changes from one form of liquid to another at a temperature of 2.19º K, under its own vapour pressure at that temperature. The liquid above this temperatureExpand
Heat Conduction in Liquid Helium
IT was found by Rollin1 and by Keesom and Keesom2 that liquid helium II shows an extra-ordinarily high heat conductivity, of the order of 190 cal./ We have measured the heat conductivityExpand
Viscosity of Helium I and Helium II
DETERMINATIONS have recently been made in the Cryogenic Laboratory at Toronto of the viscosity of liquid helium in its two states, helium I and helium II.