Viscosity in Strongly Interacting Quantum Field Theories from Black Hole Physics

  title={Viscosity in Strongly Interacting Quantum Field Theories from Black Hole Physics},
  author={P.Kovtun and D.T.Son and A.O.Starinets},
The ratio of shear viscosity to volume density of entropy can be used to characterize how close a given fluid is to being perfect. Using string theory methods, we show that this ratio is equal to a universal value of $\hbar/4\pi k_B$ for a large class of strongly interacting quantum field theories whose dual description involves black holes in anti--de Sitter space. We provide evidence that this value may serve as a lower bound for a wide class of systems, thus suggesting that black hole… Expand
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