Visceral Leishmaniasis with Endobronchial Involvement in an Immunocompetent Adult


Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by fever, cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Cough may be a presenting symptom as well. However, pulmonary involvement is considered rare and mainly described in immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of an immunocompetent adult whose clinical presentation was dominated by cough and hemoptysis. Bronchoscopy revealed a discreet polypoid mucosal endobronchial lesion whose biopsy yielded Leishmania amastigotes within histiocytes. Transbronchial needle biopsy of a right paratracheal lymph node was also positive. Leishmania amastigotes were also found on bone marrow and liver biopsies. Treatment with IV Amphotericin B was successful. In conclusion, cough should not be overlooked as a presenting symptom of visceral leishmaniasis and may be a sign of pulmonary involvement.

DOI: 10.1155/2011/561985

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Leishmaniasis The Lancet

  • B L Herwaldt
  • 1999
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