Viruses manipulate the marine environment

  title={Viruses manipulate the marine environment},
  author={Forest L. Rohwer and Rebecca Vega Thurber},
Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world. 

Interactions between marine microorganisms and their phages

An overview of recent advances in research on the interactions between marine microorganisms and their phages is provided, and future research directions are suggested based on the understanding of the literature and the own work.

Marine Viruses: Key Players in Marine Ecosystems

Viruses were recognized as the causative agents of fish diseases, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis and Oregon sockeye disease, in the early 1960s [1], and have since been shown to be

Environmental bacteriophages: viruses of microbes in aquatic ecosystems

The present chapter sought to review the literature on the diversity and functional roles of viruses of microbes in environmental microbiology, focusing primarily on prokaryotic viruses (i.e., phages) in aquatic ecosystems, which form the bulk of the authors' knowledge in modern environmental viral ecology.

Marine Viruses: the Beneficial Side of a Threat

A condensed overview of the possibilities of using the enormous potential offered by marine viruses to develop innovative products in industries as pharmaceuticals, environmental remediation, cosmetics, material sciences, and several others, is presented.

When a virus is not a parasite: the beneficial effects of prophages on bacterial fitness

In this review, the many ways that prophages, which are phage genomes integrated into the genomes of their hosts, influence bacterial behavior and virulence are discussed.

Bacteria-phage interactions in natural environments.

Virophages to viromes: a report from the frontier of viral oceanography.

The role of temperate bacteriophages in bacterial infection.

The current knowledge of the multifaceted effects that phage can exert on their hosts and how this may contribute to bacterial adaptation during infection are discussed.

A Review of Marine Viruses in Coral Ecosystem

This review discusses the discovery of viruses in the marine environment and their hosts, viral diversity in corals, presence of virus in corallivorous fish communities in reef ecosystems, detection methods, and occurrence of marine viral communities in marine sponges.

Ocean viruses and their effects on microbial communities and biogeochemical cycles

The role that ocean viruses play in shaping microbial population sizes as well as in regenerating carbon and other nutrients is focused on in an area of increasing importance.



Marine viruses — major players in the global ecosystem

  • C. Suttle
  • Environmental Science
    Nature Reviews Microbiology
  • 2007
Viruses are by far the most abundant 'lifeforms' in the oceans and are the reservoir of most of the genetic diversity in the sea, thereby driving the evolution of both host and viral assemblages.

Metagenomic Analysis of Coastal RNA Virus Communities

RNA viruses infect marine organisms from bacteria to whales, but RNA virus communities in the sea remain essentially unknown. Reverse-transcribed whole-genome shotgun sequencing was used to

Global-scale processes with a nanoscale drive: the role of marine viruses

How and to what extent virus-mediated nanoscale processes are linked to global-scale biodiversity and biogeochemistry is poorly defined.

Movement of Viruses between Biomes

Viral populations from lake water, marine sediments, and soil were able to replicate when they were incubated with the marine microbes, showing that viruses can move between different ecosystems and propagate.

Prophages in marine bacteria: dangerous molecular time bombs or the key to survival in the seas?

It has been hypothesized that marine prophages directly contribute to host survival in unfavorable environments by suppression of unneeded metabolic activities and it has been suggested that such metabolic downshifts are the result of phage-encoded repressors and transcriptional regulators acting directly on host genes.

Lysogenic virus–host interactions predominate at deep-sea diffuse-flow hydrothermal vents

Genetic fingerprinting and initial metagenomic analyses indicate that temperate viruses in vent waters appear to be a less diverse subset of the larger virioplankton community and that these viral populations contain an extraordinarily high frequency of novel genes.

Biodiversity and biogeography of phages in modern stromatolites and thrombolites

Results prove that viruses in modern microbialites display biogeographical variability and suggest that they may be derived from an ancient community, and indicate that viruses are genetically unique in these environments.

Photosynthesis genes in marine viruses yield proteins during host infection

It is proposed that the phage genes are functional in photosynthesis and that they may be increasing phage fitness by supplementing the host production of these proteins.

Genomic analysis of uncultured marine viral communities

Diversity of the viral communities was extremely high, and the results showed that it would be possible to sequence the entire genome of an uncultured marine viral community.