Virus-specific Activation of a Novel Interferon Regulatory Factor, IRF-5, Results in the Induction of Distinct Interferon α Genes*

@article{Barnes2001VirusspecificAO,
  title={Virus-specific Activation of a Novel Interferon Regulatory Factor, IRF-5, Results in the Induction of Distinct Interferon $\alpha$ Genes*},
  author={Betsy J. Barnes and Paul A. Moore and P. M. Pitha},
  journal={The Journal of Biological Chemistry},
  year={2001},
  volume={276},
  pages={23382 - 23390}
}
Interferon regulatory factor (IRF) genes encode DNA-binding proteins that are involved in the innate immune response to infection. Two of these proteins, IRF-3 and IRF-7, serve as direct transducers of virus-mediated signaling and play critical roles in the induction of type I interferon genes. We have now shown that another factor, IRF-5, participates in the induction of interferon A (IFNA) and IFNB genes and can replace the requirement for IRF-7 in the induction of IFNA genes. We demonstrate… 
On the role of IRF in host defense.
  • B. Barnes, B. Lubyová, P. Pitha
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research
  • 2002
TLDR
Three members of the IRF family were shown to inhibit induction of IFN genes and ISG in infected cells and function as dominant negative mutants of cellular IRF.
Global and Distinct Targets of IRF-5 and IRF-7 during Innate Response to Viral Infection*
TLDR
expression of cellular genes that are modulated by IRf-5 and IRF-7 during the innate response to viral infection are identified and data indicate that IRFs act primarily as transcriptional activators and thatIRF-5-and-7-induced innate antiviral response results in a broad alteration of the transcriptional profile of Cellular genes.
Multiple Regulatory Domains of IRF-5 Control Activation, Cellular Localization, and Induction of Chemokines That Mediate Recruitment of T Lymphocytes
TLDR
This study defines the regulatory phosphorylation sites that control the activity of IRf-5 in NDV-infected cells and provides further insight into the structure and function of IRF-5.
Differential Activation of IFN Regulatory Factor (IRF)-3 and IRF-5 Transcription Factors during Viral Infection1
TLDR
Analysis of phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, dimerization, binding to CREB-binding protein, recognition of DNA, and induction of gene expression were used comparatively with IRf-3 as a measure of IRF-5 activation, and reveal a potential shared biological effect.
The role of differential expression of human interferon--a genes in antiviral immunity.
TLDR
New data describing how IRF3 and IRF7 regulate the temporal and quantitative differences in the expression of the multigenic IFN-A family enhances the understanding of the selective advantage of the multiplicity ofIFN-alpha subtypes in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity.
Recruitment of Multiple Interferon Regulatory Factors and Histone Acetyltransferase to the Transcriptionally Active Interferon A Promoters*
  • W. Au, P. Pitha
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • 2001
TLDR
The DNA pull-down and chromatin precipitation assays have shown that nuclear interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 and IRf-7 as well as IRF-1 bind to IFNA1 virus-responsive element (VRE), and data together with the results of two-step chromatin immunoprecipitation strongly suggest that the IRF/IRF-7 bind toIFNA1 promoter as a dimer.
Virus-induced Heterodimer Formation betweenIRF-5 and IRF-7 Modulates Assembly of theIFNA Enhanceosome in Vivo and Transcriptional Activity of IFNA Genes*
TLDR
Results indicate thatIRF-5 can act as both an activator and a repressor ofIFN gene induction dependent on the IRF-interacting partner, and IRf-5 may be a part of the regulatory network that ensures timely expression of the immediate early inflammatory genes.
Regulation of virus-induced interferon-A genes.
TLDR
This study presents the recent progress in the field of virus-induced transactivation and repression of IFN-A gene promoters and provides a new insight on the cooperativity mechanisms among the different IRF family members.
Differential Regulation of Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF)-7 and IRF-9 Gene Expression in the Central Nervous System during Viral Infection
TLDR
Examination of the regulation of IRF gene expression in the brain during viral infection found many of the IRF genes were expressed constitutively in the mouse brain, and theIRF-7 and IRF-9 genes were upregulated during viral infections.
Interferon Regulatory Factor-7 Synergizes with Other Transcription Factors through Multiple Interactions with p300/CBP Coactivators*
TLDR
It is shown that activation of IRF-7, like that ofIRF-3, is dependent on modifications of two distinct sets of Ser/Thr residues, and that IRf-7 interacts with four distinct regions of p300/CBP, making these interactions indispensable for its ability to strongly synergize with other transcription factors, including c-Jun and IRFs.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 53 REFERENCES
Primary activation of interferon A and interferon B gene transcription by interferon regulatory factor 3.
  • Y. Juang, W. Lowther, +4 authors P. Pitha
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1998
TLDR
IRF-3 and CBP/p300 are identified as integral components of the virus-induced complex that stimulates type 1 IFN gene transcription and implicates a novel mechanism by which adenovirus may overcome the antiviral effects of the IFN pathway.
Distinct and Essential Roles of Transcription Factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 in Response to Viruses for IFN-α/β Gene Induction
TLDR
The results demonstrate the essential and distinct roles of the two factors, which together ensure the transcriptional efficiency and diversity of IFN-alpha/beta genes for the antiviral response.
Reconstitution of Virus-mediated Expression of Interferon α Genes in Human Fibroblast Cells by Ectopic Interferon Regulatory Factor-7*
TLDR
It is suggested that IRF-7 is a critical determinant for the induction of IFNA genes in infected cells through the activation of seven endogenous IF NA genes in which IFNA1 predominated.
Regulation of Type I Interferon Gene Expression by Interferon Regulatory Factor-3*
TLDR
It is demonstrated that in 293 cells IRF-3 does not stimulate expression of IFN genes but can cooperate with RelA(p65) to stimulate the IFNB promoter.
Identification of a member of the interferon regulatory factor family that binds to the interferon-stimulated response element and activates expression of interferon-induced genes.
TLDR
The high amino acid homology between IRF-3 and ISG factor 3 gamma polypeptide (ISGF3 gamma) and their similar binding properties indicate that, like ISGF3 Gamma, IRf-3 may activate transcription by complex formation with other transcriptional factors, possibly members of the Stat family.
Characterization of the Interferon Regulatory Factor-7 and Its Potential Role in the Transcription Activation of Interferon A Genes*
TLDR
The preferential expression of IRf-7 in lymphoid cells (the cell type that expresses IFNA) suggests that IRF-7 may play a critical role in regulating the IFNA gene expression.
Essential Role of Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 in Direct Activation of RANTES Chemokine Transcription
TLDR
It is demonstrated that endogenous human RANTES gene transcription is directly induced in tetracycline-inducible IRF-3(5D)-expressing cells or paramyxovirus-infected cells and it is shown that a dominant-negative IRf-3 mutant inhibits virus-induced expression of the RantES promoter.
Regulation of the Promoter Activity of Interferon Regulatory Factor-7 Gene
TLDR
The previously observed lack of expression of IRF-7 in 2fTGH fibrosarcoma cell line, correlated with hypermethylation of the CpG island in the human IRf-7 promoter, and the repression of the promoter activity was relieved by treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-deoxycytidine.
Downregulation of IRF-3 Levels by Ribozyme Modulates the Profile of IFNA Subtypes Expressed in Infected Human Cells
TLDR
It is suggested that the ratio between the relative levels of IRF-3 and IRf-7 is a critical determinant for the induction of the individual IFNA subtypes in infected cells.
Virus-mediated induction of interferon A gene requires cooperation between multiple binding factors in the interferon alpha promoter region.
TLDR
Cell-specific expression of IFNA genes results from core-cruitment of trans-acting factors that bind to alpha F1 and the IRF-1 binding site with the cell-specific virus-induced activator or repressor.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...