Virulence factors of Treponema denticola.

  title={Virulence factors of Treponema denticola.},
  author={Kazuyuki Ishihara},
  journal={Periodontology 2000},
  volume={54 1},
Spirochetes were first observed in the oral cavity in humans by van Leeuwenhoek (34) and have been detected in the periodontal lesion (101, 102, 125, 183). Spirochetes are gram-negative microorganisms with long spiral-shaped cells which achieve motility by means of periplasmic flagella (Fig. 1). Members of the phylum Spirochaetes include the etiologic agents of syphilis, Lyme disease and other borrelial relapsing fevers. The phylum consists of Spirochaetaceae, Serpulinaceae and Leptospiraceae… CONTINUE READING