Virulence Plasmids of the Pathogenic Clostridia.

  title={Virulence Plasmids of the Pathogenic Clostridia.},
  author={Sarah A. Revitt-Mills and Callum J. Vidor and Thomas D. Watts and Dena Lyras and Julian I. Rood and Vicki Adams},
  journal={Microbiology spectrum},
  volume={7 3}
The clostridia cause a spectrum of diseases in humans and animals ranging from life-threatening tetanus and botulism, uterine infections, histotoxic infections and enteric diseases, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and food poisoning. The symptoms of all these diseases are the result of potent protein toxins produced by these organisms. These toxins are diverse, ranging from a multitude of pore-forming toxins to phospholipases, metalloproteases, ADP-ribosyltransferases and large… 
Pathogenicity and virulence of Clostridium perfringens
The virulence of this Gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobe is largely attributable to its copious toxin production and non-toxin factors, such as degradative enzymes like sialidases, are also now being implicated in the pathogenicity of this bacterium.
The ever-expanding tcp conjugation locus of pCW3 from Clostridium perfringens.
This study examined the importance in pCW3 conjugation of several highly conserved proteins encoded in the cnaC region, and postulate that CnaC, SrtD, TcpN and Dam are involved in enhancing the transfer frequency of p CW3.
Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens in chickens and pigs from Beijing and Shanxi, China.
Investigation of the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens in chickens and pigs in Beijing and Shanxi provided scientific basis for efficient intervention or prevention measures of antimicrobial resistance in animal husbandry in China.
ssc-microRNA-132 targets DACH1 to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in Clostridium perfringens beta2 toxin-treated porcine intestinal epithelial cells.
The results reveal that ssc-microR-132 targeted DACH1 to alleviate CPB2-mediated inflammation and apoptosis in IPEC-J2, which was consistent with the ileal tissue expression.


Toxin Plasmids of Clostridium perfringens
The presence of toxin genes on conjugative plasmids, particularly in association with insertion sequences that may mobilize these toxin genes, likely provides C. perfringens with considerable virulence plasticity and adaptability when it causes diseases originating in the gastrointestinal tract.
Clostridium perfringens extracellular toxins and enzymes: 20 and counting
The plethora of toxins and extracellular enzymes produced by C. perfringens are reviewed, highlighting their importance in disease and strain classification as well as introducing the latest additions to the ever increasing C. perfumeens toxin family.
Clostridium perfringens urease genes are plasmid borne
The C. perfringens enzyme was highly similar to the ureases of other bacteria and cross-reacted with antibodies raised against the Urease purified from Helicobacter pylori, and production was inhibited by urea and induced under growth conditions where the availability of nitrogen sources was limiting.
Expression of the large clostridial toxins is controlled by conserved regulatory mechanisms.
LCT production in C. sordellii and C. perfringens is temporally regulated and repressed by glucose in a similar manner to C. difficile, and cross-complementation showed that TpeR is not functionally interchangeable with TcdR or TcsR, although conserved mechanisms are employed by the clostridia to control LCT production.
Horizontal gene transfer converts non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains into toxin producers
It is shown that the PaLoc can be transferred from the toxin-producing strain, 630Δerm, to three non-toxigenic strains of different ribotypes, demonstrating that a toxigenic C. difficile strain is capable of converting a non- Tournaisian strain to a toxin producer by horizontal gene transfer.
Necrotic Enteritis-Derived Clostridium perfringens Strain with Three Closely Related Independently Conjugative Toxin and Antibiotic Resistance Plasmids
This work has shown that the plasmid that carries the netB gene is conjugative and has a 40-kb region that is very similar to replication and transfer regions found within each of the sequenced conjugatives plasmids from C. perfringens.
Epsilon-Toxin Plasmids of Clostridium perfringens Type D Are Conjugative
This study demonstrated the fluid nature of the toxinotypes and their dependence upon the presence or absence of toxin plasmids, some of which have for the first time been shown to be conjugative.
NetF-producing Clostridium perfringens: Clonality and plasmid pathogenicity loci analysis.
The data obtained showed that all NetF-producing strains have a common plasmid profile and that the defined pathogenicity loci on the plasmids are conserved in all these strains.
Plasmidome Interchange between Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum Converts Strains of Independent Lineages into Distinctly Different Pathogens
A comprehensive characterization of the complex species group C. novyi sensu lato is presented, explaining the intermixed genetic properties.
Towards an understanding of the role of Clostridium perfringens toxins in human and animal disease.
It is established that C. perfringens uses chromosomally encoded alpha toxin and perfringolysin O (a pore-forming toxin) during histotoxic infections and this bacterium causes intestinal disease by employing toxins encoded by mobile genetic elements.