Virtual electrodes in cardiac tissue: a common mechanism for anodal and cathodal stimulation.

@article{Wikswo1995VirtualEI,
  title={Virtual electrodes in cardiac tissue: a common mechanism for anodal and cathodal stimulation.},
  author={J P Wikswo and Siu Fung Lin and Rashida A. Abbas},
  journal={Biophysical journal},
  year={1995},
  volume={69 6},
  pages={2195-210}
}
Traditional cable analyses cannot explain complex patterns of excitation in cardiac tissue with unipolar, extracellular anodal, or cathodal stimuli. Epifluorescence imaging of the transmembrane potential during and after stimulation of both refractory and excitable tissue shows distinctive regions of simultaneous depolarization and hyperpolarization during stimulation that act as virtual cathodes and anodes. The results confirm bidomain model predictions that the onset (make) of a stimulus… CONTINUE READING

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