Virtual Environments for Medical Training: Graphical and Haptic Simulation of Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration


We have developed a computer-based training system to simulate laparoscopic procedures in virtual environments (VEs) for medical training. The major hardware components of our system include a computer monitor to display visual interactions between three–dimensional (3-D) virtual models of organs and instruments together with a pair of force feedback… (More)


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