Viroids

@article{Tsagris2008Viroids,
  title={Viroids},
  author={Efthimia Mina Tsagris and {\'A}. E. Mart{\'i}nez de Alba and M. Gozmanova and K. Kalantidis},
  journal={Cellular Microbiology},
  year={2008},
  volume={10}
}
Viroids are small, circular RNA pathogens, which infect several crop plants and can cause diseases of economic importance. They do not code for proteins but they contain a number of RNA structural elements, which interact with factors of the host. The resulting set of sophisticated and specific interactions enables them to use the host machinery for their replication and transport, circumvent its defence reactions and alter its gene expression. Although found in plants, viroids have a distant… Expand
What has been happening with viroids?
TLDR
Viroid sequences that are involved in pathogenicity through the RNA silencing system and the target of their viroid-specific small RNAs also have been identified and new viroids have also been discovered and characterized. Expand
Current overview on viroid–host interactions
TLDR
The current understanding of the viroid–host interaction has been summarized with the goal of simplifying the complexity of viroid biology for future research. Expand
Viroids: self‐replicating, mobile, and fast‐evolving noncoding regulatory RNAs
  • B. Ding
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. RNA
  • 2010
TLDR
The host range of many viroids is expanding, essentially as a result of continuing and fast evolution of noncoding sequences/structures to gain new biological functions. Expand
Cytopathic Effects Incited by Viroid RNAs and Putative Underlying Mechanisms
TLDR
Early and more recent studies addressing the cytopathology and histopathology incited by a chloroplast-replicating viroid will be reviewed and reassessed in the light of recent advances in the regulatory roles of small RNAs. Expand
Viroids: an Ariadne's thread into the RNA labyrinth
TLDR
Viroids are models for studying RNA evolution and for analysing RNA transport in plants, because they can move intracellularly, intercellularly through plasmodesmata and to distal parts of the plant through the vascular system. Expand
olecular biology of viroid – host interactions and disease ontrol strategies
Viroids are single-stranded, covalently closed, circular, highly structured noncoding RNAs that cause disease in several economically important crop plants. They replicate autonomously and moveExpand
Viroid-insect-plant interactions in view of transmission routes
TLDR
A first goal was to investigate the role of weeds as potential reservoirs for pospiviroids, and the transmission pathway of “transencapsidation” in the luteovirus Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) was investigated for two Pospiviroid species. Expand
Small RNAs containing the pathogenic determinant of a chloroplast-replicating viroid guide the degradation of a host mRNA as predicted by RNA silencing.
TLDR
It is determined that two PLMVd-sRNAs containing the PC-associated insertion target for cleavage the mRNA encoding the chloroplastic heat-shock protein 90 (cHSP90), thus implicating RNA silencing in the modulation of host gene expression by a viroid. Expand
In-depth sequencing of the siRNAs associated with peach latent mosaic viroid infection
TLDR
Surprisingly, the siRNAs from some regions of the PLMVd genome appear over-represented, although these regions are not necessarily forming sufficiently long double-stranded structures to satisfy Dicer-like criteria for substrate specificity. Expand
Replication of Avocado Sunblotch Viroid in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc Sp. PCC 7120
TLDR
These results provide the first evidence that a prokaryotic cell possesses all the machinery required to sustain the process of RNA-RNA replication, and shed light on the evolution of the cellular factors on which RNA replication processes depend. Expand
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References

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TLDR
Although they induce symptoms in plants similar to those accompanying virus infections, viroids have unique structural, functional, and evolutionary characteristics and could exert their pathogenic effects via RNA silencing. Expand
Virp1 Is a Host Protein with a Major Role in Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid Infection in Nicotiana Plants
TLDR
Transfection experiments with isolated protoplasts revealed that Virp1-suppressed cells were unable to sustain viroid replication, suggesting that resistance to viroid infection in Virp 1-suppression plants is likely the result of cell-autonomous events. Expand
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TLDR
The structural simplicity, functional versatility, and experimental tractability of viroid RNAs make viroid-host interactions an excellent model to investigate the basic principles of infection and further the general mechanisms of RNA-templated replication, intracellular and intercellular RNA trafficking, and RNA-based regulation of gene expression. Expand
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TLDR
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TLDR
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Viroid RNA systemic spread may depend on the interaction of a 71-nucleotide bulged hairpin with the host protein VirP1.
TLDR
It is proposed that the AGG/CCUUC motif bolsters recognition of the TR by VirP1 to achieve access of the viroid to pathways that propagate endogenous RNA systemic signals in plants. Expand
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
A genome-wide mutational analysis led to a genomic map of viroid RNA motifs that mediate single-cell replication and systemic trafficking, respectively, which provides a framework to enable high-throughput studies on the tertiary structures and functional mechanisms of RNA motifS that regulate viroid replication and trafficking. Expand
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TLDR
The lack of infectivity observed in a series of transmission assays in carnation indicates that CarSV RNA, in spite of sharing structural similarities with viroid and viroid-like satellite RNAs from plants, does not belong to either of these two groups. Expand
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