Viral modulation of NK cell immunity

@article{Lodoen2005ViralMO,
  title={Viral modulation of NK cell immunity},
  author={Melissa B. Lodoen and Lewis L. Lanier},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
  year={2005},
  volume={3},
  pages={59-69}
}
Natural killer (NK) cells have been implicated in innate immune responses against viruses such as herpesviruses, which cause persistent infections in the host. In response to the selective pressure that is exerted by NK cells, many viruses have evolved strategies either to evade detection by NK cells or to modulate the activity of NK cells. Here, we review the unique relationship that exists between NK cells and viruses, with a focus on herpesviruses. 
Evolutionary struggles between NK cells and viruses
  • L. Lanier
  • Biology, Medicine
    Nature Reviews Immunology
  • 2008
TLDR
In addition to their participation in the immediate innate immune response against infection, interactions between NK cells and dendritic cells shape the nature of the subsequent adaptive immune response to pathogens.
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The Natural Selection of Herpesviruses and Virus-Specific NK Cell Receptors
TLDR
During the co-evolution of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and natural killer cells, each has evolved specific tactics in an attempt to prevail, as virus and immune cells try to out-maneuver one another or for the virus to achieve détente for optimal dissemination in the population.
Regulation of NK cell activity : studies of DAP12-associated receptors in immune synapse formation and in responses to cytomegalovirus infection
TLDR
The general aim of this thesis was to address the role of a specific signaling pathway for activating NK cell receptors, the DAP12 pathway, in complex situations such as cellular or host-pathogen situations.
Natural killer cells in host defense against veterinary pathogens
Mechanisms of Tumor and Viral Immune Escape from Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Surveillance
TLDR
The current review focuses on escape mechanisms of viruses and malignantly transformed ‘stressed’ cells to evade from NK cell cytotoxicity, and discusses the future perspectives and hypotheses aiming to improve therapeutic NK cell strategies against tumor immune escape mechanisms.
Functional NK cell cytotoxicity assays against virus infected cells.
TLDR
Two methods to measure the ability of NK cells to kill target cells infected with different viruses, or expressing different viral proteins are described; one method measures sodium dichromate that is released from target cells as they are killed, and the other uses 7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) to measure apoptosis and death of target cells following incubation with NK cells.
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