Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy of farmed marine fish species in Italy.

@article{Bovo1999ViralEA,
  title={Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy of farmed marine fish species in Italy.},
  author={Giuseppe Bovo and Tsutomu Nishizawa and Chiara Maltese and Franco Borghesan and Franco Mutinelli and Francesco Montesi and S De Mas},
  journal={Virus research},
  year={1999},
  volume={63 1-2},
  pages={143-6}
}
Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy, otherwise known as fish encephalitis or viral nervous necrosis (VNN), is an emerging problem in several farmed marine fish species in various geographic areas all over the world. Since summer 1995, heavy losses affecting mainly juvenile and adult sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) have been observed in several on-growing facilities in Italy. Dying fish show abnormal swimming behaviour and, at temperatures higher than 20-22 degrees C, mortality rates range… CONTINUE READING

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