Viral encephalitis: familiar infections and emerging pathogens

  title={Viral encephalitis: familiar infections and emerging pathogens},
  author={Richard J Whitley and John W. Gnann},
  journal={The Lancet},

Viral encephalitis

It is essential to commence early treatment with intravenous acyclovir in patients suspected of having HSE because of the remarkable safety and efficacy of this drug and the dangers of delaying potentially effective treatment of life threatening disease.

Recent issues in herpes simplex encephalitis

Some of the recently published management guidelines for HSE are considered and comment on various current issues of contention, including the timing and frequency of cerebrospinal fluid examinations for the polymerase chain reaction detection of HSV, decisions regarding acyclovir therapy including the consequences of delay in its initiation, and the use of corticosteroids in the disease.

Virus-Induced Encephalitis and Innate Immune Responses – A Focus on Emerging or Re-Emerging Viruses

Interestingly, CHIKV-associated neuropathology was first described in the 1960s but it is the unprecedented incidence rate in the Indian Ocean with efficient clinical facilities that allowed a better description of cases with severe encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, peripheral neuropathies and deaths among newborns (mother-to-child infection), infants and elderly patients.

Arbovirus infections of the nervous system: Current trends and future threats

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are among the most serious international infectious threats to the human nervous system and neurologic diseases that may be transmitted by arthropods to humans include meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis, and encephalomyelitis.

Fulminant Herpes Simplex Virus Type I Encephalitis Despite Maximal Medical Therapy

The case of a 19-year-old female with HSE who received standard acyclovir therapy and subsequently required multiple antiviral therapeutics and steroid therapy is discussed.

Molecular Methods for Diagnosis of Viral Encephalitis

This review discusses general principles of PCR and reverse transcription-PCR, including qualitative, quantitative, and multiplex techniques, with comment on issues of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values.



Herpes simplex virus infections of the central nervous system: therapeutic and diagnostic considerations.

  • R. WhitleyF. Lakeman
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    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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This review summarizes the current knowledge on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of herpes simplex virus infections of the brain.

The pathogenesis of acute viral encephalitis and postinfectious encephalomyelitis.

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In Japanese encephalitis there is direct invasion of the virus into the nervous system, selective infection and destruction of neurons, and evidence that both humoral and cellular immune responses attenuate the infection, while in measles encephalomyelitisthere is little evidence that the virus invades the nervousSystem.

Nipah virus: a recently emergent deadly paramyxovirus.

Electron microscopic, serologic, and genetic studies indicate that the Nipah virus belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and is most closely related to the recently discovered Hendra virus, and it is suggested that these two viruses are representative of a new genus within the familyparamyxviridae.

Exacerbation of herpes simplex encephalitis after successful treatment with acyclovir.

  • Y. ItoH. Kimura T. Morishima
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2000
Exacerbation of HSE in children may be more common than previously recognized and it is suggested that the replication of HSV or another viral pathogen caused a second encephalitic illness in some cases.

Infections of the central nervous system.

The central nervous system syndromes mediated by bacterial toxins: botulism, J.J. Whitley and S. Stagno neurological manifestations of infection with the human immunodeficiency viruses, B.K. Plotkin Guillain-Barre syndrome and D.G. McLone.

Publication of guidelines for the prevention and treatment of B virus infections in exposed persons.

A rational approach to the detection and management of human B-virus infection is formulated based upon information from published cases, unpublished cases managed by working-group members, knowledge of the behavior of herpes simplex virus, and--in the absence of hard data--the collective judgment of the group.

Clinical spectrum of enterovirus 71 infection in children in southern Taiwan, with an emphasis on neurological complications.

  • S. M. WangC. Liu T. Yeh
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    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 1999
Brain stem encephalitis that progressed abruptly to neurogenic shock and NPE was indicative of poor prognosis in this epidemic and early aggressive treatment and close monitoring of the neurological signs are mandatory to improve the chance of survival.

La Crosse encephalitis in children.

La Crosse virus infection should be considered in children who present with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis, and Hyponatremia and increasing body temperature may be related to clinical deterioration.

Herpes simplex encephalitis. Clinical Assessment.

Clinical data from 113 patients in whom the diagnosis was proved by viral isolation of herpes simplex encephalitis shows that diagnosis can be confirmed only by brain biopsy.

California-La Crosse encephalitis.