Violence exposure, trauma, and IQ and/or reading deficits among urban children.

  title={Violence exposure, trauma, and IQ and/or reading deficits among urban children.},
  author={Virginia Delaney-Black and Chandice Covington and Steven J Ondersma and Beth Nordstrom-Klee and Thomas Templin and Joel Ager and James Janisse and Robert J. Sokol},
  journal={Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine},
  volume={156 3},
BACKGROUND Exposure to violence in childhood has been associated with lower school grades. However, the association between violence exposure and performance on standardized tests (such as IQ or academic achievement) in children is unknown. It is also not known whether violence exposure itself or subsequent symptoms of trauma are primarily responsible for negative outcomes. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between violence exposure and trauma-related distress and standardized test… CONTINUE READING


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