Violence and the Rise of Open-Access Orders

  title={Violence and the Rise of Open-Access Orders},
  author={Douglass C. North and John Joseph Wallis and Barry R. Weingast},
  journal={Journal of Democracy},
  pages={55 - 68}
The problem of controlling the use of force and those who are best at wielding it is foundational to human collective life. For most of history, a social order that was relatively “closed” has seemed the most natural way to manage this problem. But over the past century or two, a transition from closed- to open-access orders has led to the emergence of societies with widespread political participation, the use of elections to select governments, constitutional arrangements to limit and define… 
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