Viewer Aggression and Homophily, Identification, and Parasocial Relationships With Television Characters

  title={Viewer Aggression and Homophily, Identification, and Parasocial Relationships With Television Characters},
  author={Keren Eyal and Alan M. Rubin},
  journal={Journal of Broadcasting \& Electronic Media},
  pages={77 - 98}
  • Keren EyalA. Rubin
  • Published 1 January 2003
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media
This study examined the antecedents of viewer relationships experienced with television characters. Based on social cognitive theory, we considered how trait aggression helped explain identification, hornophily, and parasocial interaction with aggressive characters. Two hundred nineteen participants completed questionnaires measuring trait aggression and relationships with one of eight characters. We content analyzed portrayals of these characters to determine their levels of aggression… 

Investigating the Relationships Among Child's Age, Parasocial Interactions, and the Social Realism of Favorite Television Characters

This study examined the relationships among children's age, parasocial interaction, and the social realism of children's self-reported favorite television characters. Children (N = 183) aged 5–12

Are Female Action Heroes Risky Role Models? Character Identification, Idealization, and Viewer Aggression

Although research has shown that affinity for aggressive media characters is linked to greater aggressive tendencies, the increasingly prevalent female action hero has received little empirical

Mediated Relationships With TV Characters: The Effects of Perceived and Actual Similarity in Personality Traits

Five TV actors completed the Big Five personality scale for a character they played on a popular Israeli TV comedy. Viewers of each of these series completed the same scales both for themselves and

Mediated relationships with TV characters

Five TV actors completed the Big Five personality scale for a character they played on a popular Israeli TV comedy. Viewers of each of these series completed the same scales both for themselves and

Activism , Character Identification , and Frequency of Watching My Little Pony : Friendship Is Magic

We examined associations between activist behavior, character identification, and frequency of watching the television show My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic. Bronies—adult fans of the show—often

When Good Friends Say Goodbye: A Parasocial Breakup Study

This study examines viewers' reactions to parasocial breakup with mediated characters in light of interpersonal and mass communication theories. Following the airing of the last episode of the

Parasocial Interaction With Liked, Neutral, and Disliked Characters on a Popular TV Series

In this study, 174 respondents completed an online questionnaire measuring their responses to a liked, neutral, or disliked character from the ABC drama Lost. Specifically, they reported their

Who Watches Verbally Aggressive Shows ? An Examination of Personality and Other Individual Difference Factors in Predicting Viewership

A television-use questionnaire was completed by undergraduate college students (N = 773). Based on results from the television-use survey, respondents’ popular television programs (33 shows) were

Parasocial Interaction as More Than Friendship

This study supports the refinement of the concept of parasocial interaction (PSI) to apply to mediated personae that viewers might dislike by revealing that participants did experience PSI with disliked characters as well as liked characters, and that the two measures of PSI did not appear to assess the same construct.

Mean on the Screen: Social Aggression in Programs Popular With Children

A content analysis was conducted to examine the portrayal of social aggression in the 50 most popular television programs among 2- to 11-year-old children. Results revealed that 92% of the programs



Interpersonal and psychological predictors of parasocial interaction with different television performers

The study examined the relationship of interpersonal homophily and self‐esteem with the development of parasocial interaction. “Attitude”; homophily was found to be the strongest predictor, among the

Children's wishful identification and parasocial interaction with favorite television characters

Children aged 7 to 12 were interviewed about their favorite TV character. Nearly all boys and about half of the girls selected same‐sex favorites. Regression analyses used perceived character traits

Attribution in Social and Parasocial Relationships

This study examined social and parasocial interaction from interpersonal attribution perspectives. Parasocial interaction is a perceived interpersonal relationship on the part of a television viewer

Verbal aggressiveness: An interpersonal model and measure

Verbal agressiveness is conceptualized as a personality trait that predisposes persons to attack the self‐concepts of other people instead of, or in addition to, their positions on topics of

The aggression questionnaire.

  • A. BussM. Perry
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1992
Correlational analysis revealed that anger is the bridge between both physical and verbal aggression and hostility and the need to assess not only overall aggression but also its individual components.

Gender and aggression II: Personal aggressiveness

To investigate how gender, ethnicity, age and education influence aggressiveness, we surveyed 115 male and female college students (56% male; 50% Anglo and 26% Hispanic) and 79 persons (72% male; 92%


A conceptual model was developed predicting parasocial interaction from both a social interaction need due to loneliness and instrumental television news use. Questionnaires were completed by 329

Psychological Predictors of Television Viewing Motivation

Our objective was to explore the psychological origins of media gratifications by examining how pertinent psychological variables, based on McGuire's paradigm, help explain television viewing

Experiments in televised violence and verbal aggression: two exploratory studies.

The hypothesized relationship between physical and verbal aggression was minimally supported and several questions are raised and research directions are suggested to better understand verbal aggression as it is related to physical aggression and televised violence.

Predictors of children's interest in violent television programs

Children's attraction to violent television was explored by comparing the relative contributions of seemingly important predictors. A random sample of 285 parents of children in kindergarten, second,