Videogames in Computer Space: The Complex History of Pong

  title={Videogames in Computer Space: The Complex History of Pong},
  author={H. Lowood},
  journal={IEEE Annals of the History of Computing},
  • H. Lowood
  • Published 2009
  • Computer Science
  • IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
The earliest digital games emerged out of laboratories and research centers in the 1960s and 1970s. The intertwined histories of Nolan Bushnell's Computer Space and Pong illustrate the transition from these "university games" to accessible entertainment and educational games as well as the complicated historical relationship among the arcade, computer, and videogames. 

Figures and Topics from this paper

Broken Beyond Repair:Warren Spector on the History of Video Games
In 2010, I received a postdoctoral research grant from FQRSC to study the history of video games. Usually you get this type of grant to go work in an established research center. While preparing theExpand
An Augmented Reality Implementation of the Pong Game
The development of an interactive, augmented reality, and collaborative Pong game is presented, which includes natural language processing on interviews with children and qualitative analysis of their verbal responses. Expand
"To Get Help, Please Press X" The Rise of the Assistance Paradigm in Video Game Design
This paper will try to understand how game designers have organised the challenge and complexity of their games through the development of assistance systems: tutorials, check points, adjustable difficulty, etc. Expand
Video Game Screens: From Arcades to Nintendo DS
Video games have become one of the most important and profitable mediums of the modern era. They are even considered the most influential form of popular expression and entertainment in today’sExpand
Cold War Games: Operational Gaming and Interactive Programming in Historical and Contemporary Contexts
The present study traces the historical roots of DIY computing by focusing on the concept of interactivity, and especially interactive forms of digital gaming, which was picked up and popularized via the earliest personal computers. Expand
William Alfred Higinbotham: Scientist, Activist, and Computer Game Pioneer
  • K. Nyitray
  • Engineering, Computer Science
  • IEEE Ann. Hist. Comput.
  • 2011
This article discusses about William Alfred Higinbotham who was inspired to design Tennis for Two, the first computer game to display motion and interactive control with handheld controllers.
The Rise of Reactive and Interactive Video Game Audio
As video games have matured from a technical hobby to a fully-fledged art form, so too have the methods used to create them matured, and many developers have turned to utilizing audio pipelines which allow for expanded mixing and audio processing techniques, resulting in the most immersive interactive audio experiences ever made. Expand
Bugaboo: A Spanish case of circulation and co-production of video games
Abstract Melanie Swalwell has discussed how “locality has largely been left out of game history, at least until recently”. Moreover, much of the research and literature about the still young historyExpand
Making Computers Boring: Thoughts on Historical Exhibition of Computing Technology from the Mass-Market Era
Computer history displays in museum galleries and exhibitions traditionally focus on iconic machines and progressive lineages of hardware production. This approach has been widely criticized asExpand
Making Computers Boring: Thoughts on Historical Exhibition of Computing Technology from the Mass-Market Era
Abstract Computer history displays in museum galleries and exhibitions traditionally focus on iconic machines and progressive lineages of hardware production. This approach has been widely criticizedExpand


Supercade: A Visual History of the Videogame Age 1971-1984
From the Publisher: "From Pong to Pac-Man, Asteroids to Zaxxon - more than fifty million people around the world have come of age within the electronic flux of videogames, their subconscious foreverExpand
Microprocessors: Design case history: The Atari Video Computer System: By omitting lots of hardware, designers added flexibility and gave video-game programmers room to be creative
Discusses the development of the Atari Video Computer System for playing games. It is microprocessor based and consists of ROM in cartridges, 128 bytes of RAM and a television interface adapter. TheExpand
The Ultimate History of Video Games
The ultimate history of video games are a good way to achieve details about operating certain equipments and to find the manual that you might want with great ease and simplicity. Expand
Mathematical games: the fantastic combinations of john conway's new solitaire game "life
In 1967 he discovered a new group-some call it "Conway's constellation"--that includes all but two of the then known sporadic groups, a breakthrough that has had exciting repercussions in both group theory and number theory. Expand
Online game interactivity theory
Online Game Interactivity Theory is about online game design-- its concepts, techniques, and tools, and guides you through the design process for multiplayer online games, beginning with discussions of online game history, the differences between single-player games and online games and how the various categories of online games affect design. Expand
Apple Confidential: The Real Story of Apple Computer, Inc.
From the Publisher: In Apple Confidential, Journalist Owen Linzmayer explores Apple's tumultuous history, from its legendary founding, through a series of disastrous executive decisions, to itsExpand
Toward a history of (personal) workstations
I originally accepted this keynote honor for five reasons: to respond to Alan Perlis' request, to identify the important artifacts that should be preserved in The Computer Museum, to posit a framework of the history of workstations that can be written in the next century, and to summarize my own involvement on interactive computing. Expand
A History of Modern Computing
This history covers modern computing from the development of the first electronic digital computer through the advent of the World Wide Web. The author concentrates on four key moments of transition:Expand
Transforming Computer Technology: Information Processing for the Pentagon, 1962-1986
From the Publisher: In the explosively changing world of computer technology, massive funding and large-scale enterprise have become givens, and probably no single actor has had a greater influenceExpand
Videogames: In the Beginning