Video Conferencing and Flow-Rate Fairness: A First Look at Zoom and the Impact of Flow-Queuing AQM

@article{Sander2021VideoCA,
  title={Video Conferencing and Flow-Rate Fairness: A First Look at Zoom and the Impact of Flow-Queuing AQM},
  author={Constantin Sander and Ike Kunze and Klaus Wehrle and Jan R{\"u}th},
  journal={ArXiv},
  year={2021},
  volume={abs/2107.00904}
}
Congestion control is essential for the stability of the Internet and the corresponding algorithms are commonly evaluated for interoperability based on flow-rate fairness. In contrast, video conferencing software such as Zoom uses custom congestion control algorithms whose fairness behavior is mostly unknown. Aggravatingly, video conferencing has recently seen a drastic increase in use – partly caused by the COVID-19 pandemic – and could hence negatively affect how available Internet resources… 

Measuring the performance and network utilization of popular video conferencing applications

TLDR
Three modern VCAs are studied: Zoom, Google Meet, and Microsoft Teams, which shows how they compete with themselves, with each other, and with other applications; and how usage modality (e.g., gallery vs. speaker mode) affects utilization.

Can you see me now?: a measurement study of Zoom, Webex, and Meet

TLDR
It is found that the existing videoconferencing systems vary in terms of geographic scope, which in turns determines streaming lag experienced by users, and the measurement methodology can enable reproducible benchmark analysis for any types of comparative or longitudinal study on available videoconference systems.

Zoom Session Quality: A Network-Level View

TLDR
This paper uses large-scale passive measurement of campus-level Zoom traffic to understand usage patterns and performance problems of this Zoom network, as well as network-related issues that affect Zoom session quality.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 33 REFERENCES

NADA: A Unified Congestion Control Scheme for Low-Latency Interactive Video

TLDR
A unified approach for congestion control of interactive video: network-assisted dynamic adaptation (NADA), which reacts fast to changes over the network, allows for weighted bandwidth sharing among multiple competing video streams, and sustains a substantial share of bottleneck bandwidth when coexisting with TCP.

Controlling queuing delays for real-time communication: the interplay of E2E and AQM algorithms

TLDR
Experimental investigations show that, when only GCC flows are considered, the end-to-end algorithm is able to contain queuing delays without AQMs, and flow queuing schedulers offer a better solution.

Congestion Control in the Wild—Investigating Content Provider Fairness

TLDR
If current Internet traffic generated by CPs still adheres to the conventional understanding of fairness is empirical investigated to compare fairness properties of testbed hosts to actual traffic of six major CPs subject to different queue sizes and queueing disciplines in a home-user setting.

An Empirical View on Content Provider Fairness

TLDR
This study compares fairness properties of testbed hosts to actual traffic of six major content providers subject to different bandwidths, RTTs, queue sizes, and queueing disciplines in a home-user setting and finds that some employed congestion control algorithms lead to significantly asymmetric bandwidth shares, however, AQMs such as FQ_CoDel are able to alleviate such unfairness.

Experimental evaluation of BBR congestion control

TLDR
An independent and extensive experimental evaluation of BBR at higher speeds and considers throughput, queuing delay, packet loss, and fairness, as well as some severe inherent issues such as increased queuing delays, unfairness, and massive packet loss.

Congestion Control for Web Real-Time Communication

TLDR
A novel congestion control algorithm for RTC is proposed, which is based on the main idea of estimating—using a Kalman Filter—the end-to-end one-way delay variation which is experienced by packets traveling from a sender to a destination.

Profiling Skype video calls: Rate control and video quality

TLDR
It is demonstrated that user back-offs upon quality degradation serve as an effective user-level rate control scheme and it is shown that Skype video calls are indeed TCP-friendly and respond to congestion quickly when the network is overloaded.

Towards a Deeper Understanding of TCP BBR Congestion Control

TLDR
A publicly available framework for reproducible TCP measurements based on network emulation is presented and an analysis of BBR’s inter-flow synchronization behavior is contributed, showing that it reaches fairness equilibrium for long lived flows.

CUBIC: a new TCP-friendly high-speed TCP variant

TLDR
The CUBIC protocol modifies the linear window growth function of existing TCP standards to be a cubic function in order to improve the scalability of TCP over fast and long distance networks.