Vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic contributions to spatial orientation.

  title={Vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic contributions to spatial orientation.},
  author={James R. Lackner and Paul DiZio},
  journal={Annual review of psychology},
The control and perception of body orientation and motion are subserved by multiple sensory and motor mechanisms ranging from relatively simple, peripheral mechanisms to complex ones involving the highest levels of cognitive function and sensory-motor integration. Vestibular contributions to body orientation and to spatial localization of auditory and visual stimuli have long been recognized. These contributions are reviewed here along with new insights relating to sensory-motor calibration of… CONTINUE READING