Cell Cycle Progression or Translation Control Is Not Essential for Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Oncolysis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a type of liver cancer common in adults that accounts for over one million cases annually (Altomonte et al., 2009). A lack of successful, conventional treatment options has sparked an interest in using oncolytic viruses. The most successful and popular virus being studied currently is vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Vesicular stomatitis virus is a relatively non-pathogenic, negative-stranded RNA virus that can preferentially replicate in malignant cells and less so in normal cells (Barber, 2004). The virus’s short life cycle allows for frequent and quick replication before the host cells antibodies begin to do their job and destroy the virus. Interferon alpha is a key aspect of the innate immune response and VSV happens to be particularly susceptible to it. Tumor cells have a defective interferon pathway, which allows the virus to replicate quickly and cause necrosis. The healthy cells are able to defend themselves and destroy the virus. In this study, the combination of a recombinant VSV and interferon alpha are used to treat rats with HCC. Hopefully the two used in conjunction can provide an effective treatment to patients with this disease.