Delayed upper tract drainage on voiding cystourethrogram may not be associated with increased risk of urinary tract infection in children with vesicoureteral reflux.
PURPOSE The vesicoureteral reflux index is a novel tool designed to predict spontaneous reflux resolution in infants younger than 2 years. We performed a multi-institutional validation study to confirm the discriminatory power of the vesicoureteral reflux index to predict the vesicoureteral reflux resolution rate in young children. MATERIALS AND METHODS We identified patients diagnosed with primary vesicoureteral reflux before age 24 months who had 2 or more voiding cystourethrograms available. Demographics, vesicoureteral reflux grade and timing, ureteral anomalies and radiographic outcomes were evaluated. The C-index was estimated for time to event model assessment. RESULTS A total of 219 girls and 150 boys met study inclusion criteria. Mean ± SD age at diagnosis was 4.7 ± 4.9 months. Of the patients 101 (27.4%) had early to mid filling, 214 (58%) had late filling and 54 (14.6%) had voiding only vesicoureteral reflux. High grade reflux was present in 87 patients (23.6%) and ureteral anomalies were observed in 50 (13.6%). A vesicoureteral reflux index of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 or greater showed an improvement/resolution rate of 88.2%, 77.3%, 62.3%, 32.1% and 14.3%, respectively. On time to event analysis children with filling phase vesicoureteral reflux (p <0.001), grade 4-5 reflux (p <0.001) and ureteral anomalies (p = 0.003) had significantly longer median time to resolution. Median time to spontaneous resolution was 12.6, 12.7, 15.1, 25.6 and 31 months or greater for a vesicoureteral reflux index of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 or greater, respectively (C-index 0.305, 95% CI 0.252-0.357). During the study period 65 patients (17.6%) underwent surgical intervention. CONCLUSIONS The vesicoureteral reflux index is a simple tool that reliably predicts significant improvement and spontaneous resolution of primary reflux in patients diagnosed at younger than 2 years. The index provides valuable prognostic information, facilitating individualized patient care.