Very large release of mostly volcanic carbon during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

  title={Very large release of mostly volcanic carbon during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum},
  author={Marcus Gutjahr and Andy Ridgwell and Philip F. Sexton and Eleni Anagnostou and Paul N. Pearson and Heiko P{\"a}like and Richard D. Norris and Ellen Thomas and Gavin L. Foster},
  pages={573 - 577}
The Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a global warming event that occurred about 56 million years ago, and is commonly thought to have been driven primarily by the destabilization of carbon from surface sedimentary reservoirs such as methane hydrates. However, it remains controversial whether such reservoirs were indeed the source of the carbon that drove the warming. Resolving this issue is key to understanding the proximal cause of the warming, and to quantifying the roles of… 

Paleocene/Eocene carbon feedbacks triggered by volcanic activity

Elevated levels of mercury relative to organic carbon are reported directly preceding and within the early PETM from two North Sea sedimentary cores, signifying pulsed volcanism from the North Atlantic Igneous Province likely provided the trigger and subsequently sustained elevated CO2.

Capturing the global signature of surface ocean acidification during the Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum

  • T. BabilaD. Penman J. Zachos
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2018
The remarkable similarity among records from different ocean regions suggests that the degree of ocean carbonate change was globally near uniform, and attribute the global extent of surface ocean acidification to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels during the main phase of the PETM.

Mobilization of lithospheric mantle carbon during the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum

The early Cenozoic exhibited profound environmental change influenced by plume magmatism, continental breakup, and opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. Global warming culminated in the transient

The seawater carbon inventory at the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum

  • L. HaynesB. Hönisch
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2020
The reconstruction invokes volcanic emissions as a driver of PETM warming and suggests that the buffering capacity of the ocean increased, which helped to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but estimates confirm that modern CO2 release is occurring much faster than PETM carbon release.

Transient mobilization of subcrustal carbon coincident with Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum

Plume magmatism and continental breakup led to the opening of the northeast Atlantic Ocean during the globally warm early Cenozoic. This warmth culminated in a transient (170 thousand year, kyr)

Constraints on the onset duration of the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum

  • S. Turner
  • Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2018
Constraints on the onset duration of the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) that is characteristic of the PETM are reviewed with a focus on carbon cycle model-based attempts that forgo the need for a traditional sedimentary age model.

Surface ocean warming and acidification driven by rapid carbon release precedes Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is recognized by a major negative carbon isotope (δ13C) excursion (CIE) signifying an injection of isotopically light carbon into exogenic reservoirs, the

Permian–Triassic mass extinction pulses driven by major marine carbon cycle perturbations

The Permian/Triassic boundary approximately 251.9 million years ago marked the most severe environmental crisis identified in the geological record, which dictated the onwards course for the

Widespread Warming Before and Elevated Barium Burial During the Paleocene‐Eocene Thermal Maximum: Evidence for Methane Hydrate Release?

It is speculated the most complete explanation for early warming and rise in Ba supply is that hydrate dissociation acted as a positive feedback and caused the CIE, which implies hydrates are more temperature sensitive than previously considered, and may warrant reconsideration of the political assignment of 2 °C warming as a safe future scenario.



Rapid and sustained surface ocean acidification during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) has been associated with the release of several thousands of petagrams of carbon (Pg C) as methane and/or carbon dioxide into the ocean-atmosphere system

Release of methane from a volcanic basin as a mechanism for initial Eocene global warming

It is proposed that intrusion of voluminous mantle-derived melts in carbon-rich sedimentary strata in the northeast Atlantic may have caused an explosive release of methane—transported to the ocean or atmosphere through the vent complexes—close to the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary.

Thermogenic methane release as a cause for the long duration of the PETM

Evidence of carbon release during the PETM from a reservoir is provided and implies that carbon release from the vent systems should be included in all future considerations regarding PETM carbon cycling.

On the duration of the Paleocene‐Eocene thermal maximum (PETM)

The Paleocene‐Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) is one of the best known examples of a transient climate perturbation, associated with a brief, but intense, interval of global warming and a massive

Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and the Opening of the Northeast Atlantic

The Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) has been attributed to a sudden release of carbon dioxide and/or methane. 40Ar/39Ar age determinations show that the Danish Ash-17 deposit, which overlies

Evidence for a rapid release of carbon at the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

  • J. WrightM. Schaller
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2013
A sequence of rhythmic sedimentary couplets comprising the Paleocene/Eocene Marlboro Clay have corresponding δ18O cycles that imply a climatic origin, and are consistent with an atmospheric perturbation of 3,000-gigatons of carbon.

Past extreme warming events linked to massive carbon release from thawing permafrost

Between about 55.5 and 52 million years ago, Earth experienced a series of sudden and extreme global warming events (hyperthermals) superimposed on a long-term warming trend. The first and largest of

Dissociation of oceanic methane hydrate as a cause of the carbon isotope excursion at the end of the Paleocene

Isotopic records across the “Latest Paleocene Thermal Maximum“ (LPTM) indicate that bottom water temperature increased by more than 4°C during a brief time interval (<104 years) of the latest