Very-High-Energy Gamma Rays from a Distant Quasar: How Transparent Is the Universe?

@article{Albert2008VeryHighEnergyGR,
  title={Very-High-Energy Gamma Rays from a Distant Quasar: How Transparent Is the Universe?},
  author={Justin E Albert and Ester Aliu and H. Anderhub and Lucio Angelo Antonelli and P. Antoranz and Michael Backes and C. Baixeras and J. A. Barrio and Hendrik Bartko and Denis Bastieri and J. K. Becker and W. Bednarek and Karsten Berger and Elisa Bernardini and Ciro Bigongiari and Adrian Biland and R. K. Bock and G. Bonnoli and P. Bordas and Valenti Bosch-Ramon and Thomas Bretz and Ilia Britvitch and M. Camara and Emiliano Carmona and Ashot A. Chilingarian and Sebastian Commichau and J. L. Contreras and J. Cortina and M. T. Costado and Stefano Covino and Valentin Curtef and Francesco Dazzi and Alessandro De Angelis and Elsa de Cea del Pozo and Raquel De Los Reyes and B. De Lotto and Marcello De Maria and F. de Sabata and C. Delgado Mendez and Alberto Dom{\'i}nguez and Daniela Dorner and Michele Doro and Manel Errando and Michela Fagiolini and Daniel Ferenc and Enrique Fern{\'a}ndez and Roger Firpo and M. Victoria Fonseca and Ll. Font and Nicola Galante and Ram{\'o}n J. Garc{\'i}a L{\'o}pez and Markus Garczarczyk and Markus Gaug and Florian Goebel and Morihiro Hayashida and Artemio Herrero and Daniel H{\"o}hne and Juergen Hose and C. C. Hsu and S. Huber and T. Jogler and Tanja M. Kneiske and Daniel Kranich and Aurelio La Barbera and A. Laille and Elvira Leonardo and Eila Lindfors and S. Lombardi and Francesco Longo and M. Rutz Lopez and Eckart Lorenz and Pratik Majumdar and Galina Maneva and Nijil Mankuzhiyil and Karl Mannheim and Laura Maraschi and Mose Mariotti and M. Mart{\'i}nez and D. Mazin and M. Meucci and Manuel Meyer and J. M. Miranda and Razmik Mirzoyan and Satoko Mizobuchi and Mariano Mol{\'e}s and A. Moralejo and D. Nieto and Kari Nilsson and Jelena Ninkovi{\'c} and N. Otte and I. Oya and M. Panniello and Riccardo Paoletti and Josep Maria Paredes and Mikko Pasanen and Donatella Pascoli and Felicitas Pauss and R. G. Pegna and Miguel A. P{\'e}rez-Torres and Massimo Persic and Luigi Peruzzo and Alessio Piccioli and Francisco Prada and E. Prandini and Neus Puchades and A. Raymers and Wolfgang Rhode and Marc Rib{\'o} and Javier Rico and Michael Rissi and Anne Robert and Stefan R{\"u}gamer and Antonio Saggion and T. Saito and Marco Salvati and M. S{\'a}nchez-Conde and P. Sartori and Konstancja Satalecka and Villi Scalzotto and Valeria Scapin and Robert Schmitt and Thomas Schweizer and Maxim Shayduk and Kenji Shinozaki and Steven N. Shore and N{\'u}ria Sidro and Agnieszka Sierpowska-Bartosik and Aimo Sillanp{\"a}{\"a} and D. Sobczynska and Felix Spanier and A. Stamerra and Luisa Sabrina Stark and Leo O. Takalo and Fabrizio Tavecchio and P. Temnikov and Diego Tescaro and Masahiro Teshima and Martin Tluczykont and Diego F. Torres and Nicola Turini and H. P. Vankov and Alessio Venturini and Vincenzo Vitale and R. Mark Wagner and Wolfgang Wittek and V'ictor Zabalza and Fabio Zandanel and Roberta Zanin and J. Zapatero},
  journal={Science},
  year={2008},
  volume={320},
  pages={1752 - 1754}
}
The atmospheric Cherenkov gamma-ray telescope MAGIC, designed for a low-energy threshold, has detected very-high-energy gamma rays from a giant flare of the distant Quasi-Stellar Radio Source (in short: radio quasar) 3C 279, at a distance of more than 5 billion light-years (a redshift of 0.536). No quasar has been observed previously in very-high-energy gamma radiation, and this is also the most distant object detected emitting gamma rays above 50 gigaelectron volts. Because high-energy gamma… 
IMPLICATIONS OF THE VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY DETECTION OF THE QUASAR 3C279
The Major Atmospheric Gamma-Ray Imaging Cherenkov Telescope very high energy (VHE) γ-ray astronomy collaboration recently reported the detection of the quasar 3C279 at >100 GeV γ-ray energies. Here,
Gamma-Rays from the Quasar PKS 1441+25: Story of an Escape
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Very-high energy gamma-ray astronomy
Very-high energy (VHE) gamma quanta contribute only a minuscule fraction – below one per million – to the flux of cosmic rays. Nevertheless, being neutral particles they are currently the best
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Very high energy (VHE) gamma quanta contribute only to a minuscule fraction – below one per million – to the flux of cosmic rays. Nevertheless, being neutral particles they are currently the best
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Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy is today a well established and successful discipline. Among the major imaging air Cherenkov telescopes in operation, MAGIC, a 17 m single dish telescope,
FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE CONSTRAINTS ON THE GAMMA-RAY OPACITY OF THE UNIVERSE
The extragalactic background light (EBL) includes photons with wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared, which are effective at attenuating gamma rays with energy above ∼10 GeV during propagation
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High-energy photons are a powerful tool to understand the most violent phenomena in our Universe. However, detecting gamma-ray photons is a daunting task both owing to the overwhelming presence of
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Energetic gamma rays scatter on soft background radiation when propagating through the Universe, producing electron-positron pairs (A.I. Nikishov, Sov. Phys. JETP 14, 393 (1962)). Gamma rays with
Studies of active galactic nuclei with the MAGIC telescopes
This PhD thesis addresses the problem of understanding the very high energy emission from active galactic nuclei as detected with the MAGIC telescopes. Active galactic nuclei are galaxies which
Perspective of detecting very high energy gamma-ray emission from active galactic nuclei with Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO)
The detectability of active galactic nuclei (AGN), a major class of γ-ray emitters in the sky, by the newly planned Chinese project, Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), is
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