Very-High-Energy Gamma Rays from a Distant Quasar: How Transparent Is the Universe?

  title={Very-High-Energy Gamma Rays from a Distant Quasar: How Transparent Is the Universe?},
  author={Justin E Albert and Ester Aliu and H. Anderhub and Lucio Angelo Antonelli and P. Antoranz and Michael Backes and C. Baixeras and J. A. Barrio and Hendrik Bartko and Denis Bastieri and J. K. Becker and W. Bednarek and Karsten Berger and Elisa Bernardini and Ciro Bigongiari and Adrian Biland and R. K. Bock and G. Bonnoli and P. Bordas and Valenti Bosch-Ramon and Thomas Bretz and Ilia Britvitch and M. Camara and Emiliano Carmona and Ashot A. Chilingarian and Sebastian Commichau and J. L. Contreras and J. Cortina and M. T. Costado and Stefano Covino and Valentin Curtef and Francesco Dazzi and Alessandro De Angelis and Elsa de Cea del Pozo and Raquel De Los Reyes and B. De Lotto and Marcello De Maria and F. de Sabata and C. Delgado Mendez and Alberto Dom{\'i}nguez and Daniela Dorner and Michele Doro and Manel Errando and Michela Fagiolini and Daniel Ferenc and Enrique Fern{\'a}ndez and Roger Firpo and M. Victoria Fonseca and Ll. Font and Nicola Galante and Ram{\'o}n J. Garc{\'i}a L{\'o}pez and Markus Garczarczyk and Markus Gaug and Florian Goebel and Morihiro Hayashida and Artemio Herrero and Daniel H{\"o}hne and Juergen Hose and C. C. Hsu and S. Huber and T. Jogler and Tanja M. Kneiske and Daniel Kranich and Aurelio La Barbera and A. Laille and Elvira Leonardo and Eila Lindfors and S. Lombardi and Francesco Longo and M. Rutz Lopez and Eckart Lorenz and Pratik Majumdar and Galina Maneva and Nijil Mankuzhiyil and Karl Mannheim and Laura Maraschi and Mose Mariotti and M. Mart{\'i}nez and D. Mazin and M. Meucci and Manuel Meyer and J. M. Miranda and Razmik Mirzoyan and Satoko Mizobuchi and Mariano Mol{\'e}s and A. Moralejo and D. Nieto and Kari Nilsson and Jelena Ninkovi{\'c} and N. Otte and I. Oya and M. Panniello and Riccardo Paoletti and Josep Maria Paredes and Mikko Pasanen and Donatella Pascoli and Felicitas Pauss and R. G. Pegna and Miguel A. P{\'e}rez-Torres and Massimo Persic and Luigi Peruzzo and Alessio Piccioli and Francisco Prada and E. Prandini and Neus Puchades and A. Raymers and Wolfgang Rhode and Marc Rib{\'o} and Javier Rico and Michael Rissi and Anne Robert and Stefan R{\"u}gamer and Antonio Saggion and T. Saito and Marco Salvati and M. S{\'a}nchez-Conde and P. Sartori and Konstancja Satalecka and Villi Scalzotto and Valeria Scapin and Robert Schmitt and Thomas Schweizer and Maxim Shayduk and Kenji Shinozaki and Steven N. Shore and N{\'u}ria Sidro and Agnieszka Sierpowska-Bartosik and Aimo Sillanp{\"a}{\"a} and D. Sobczynska and Felix Spanier and A. Stamerra and Luisa Sabrina Stark and Leo O. Takalo and Fabrizio Tavecchio and P. Temnikov and Diego Tescaro and Masahiro Teshima and Martin Tluczykont and Diego F. Torres and Nicola Turini and H. P. Vankov and Alessio Venturini and Vincenzo Vitale and R. Mark Wagner and Wolfgang Wittek and V'ictor Zabalza and Fabio Zandanel and Roberta Zanin and J. Zapatero},
  pages={1752 - 1754}
The atmospheric Cherenkov gamma-ray telescope MAGIC, designed for a low-energy threshold, has detected very-high-energy gamma rays from a giant flare of the distant Quasi-Stellar Radio Source (in short: radio quasar) 3C 279, at a distance of more than 5 billion light-years (a redshift of 0.536). No quasar has been observed previously in very-high-energy gamma radiation, and this is also the most distant object detected emitting gamma rays above 50 gigaelectron volts. Because high-energy gamma… 
The Major Atmospheric Gamma-Ray Imaging Cherenkov Telescope very high energy (VHE) γ-ray astronomy collaboration recently reported the detection of the quasar 3C279 at >100 GeV γ-ray energies. Here,
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Very high energy (VHE) gamma quanta contribute only to a minuscule fraction – below one per million – to the flux of cosmic rays. Nevertheless, being neutral particles they are currently the best
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This PhD thesis addresses the problem of understanding the very high energy emission from active galactic nuclei as detected with the MAGIC telescopes. Active galactic nuclei are galaxies which
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The detectability of active galactic nuclei (AGN), a major class of γ-ray emitters in the sky, by the newly planned Chinese project, Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), is


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Intense gamma radiation has been observed from the direction of the quasar 3C 279 throughout the energy range from 30 MeV to over 5 GeV by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) during
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Gamma-ray absorption due to -pair creation on cosmological scales depends on the line-of-sight integral of the evolving density of low-energy photons in the Universe, i.e. on the history of the
Blazar γ-Rays, Shock Acceleration, and the Extragalactic Background Light
The observed spectra of blazars, their intrinsic emission, and the underlying populations of radiating particles are intimately related. The use of these sources as probes of the extragalactic
Discovery of Very High Energy γ-Rays from 1ES 1011+496 at z = 0.212
We report on the discovery of very high energy (VHE) γ-ray emission from the BL Lacertae object 1ES 1011+496. The observation was triggered by an optical outburst in 2007 March and the source was
Predicted High Energy Break in the Isotropic Gamma Ray Spectrum: a Test of Cosmological Origin
Evidence for a new component of isotropic γ-radiation above 1 MeV energy being distinct in nature and origin from that at lower energies is presented, consistent only with the hypothesis previously discussed5,6 that theseγ-rays are the redshifted remnant of cosmic-ray interactions producing pions at an earlier stage in the evolution of the universe corresponding to a redshift z≃100.
A jet model for the gamma-ray emitting blazar 3C 279
The physical conditions in the gamma-ray-emitting blazar 3C 279 are discussed. The requirement of transparency for gamma-rays, together with the observation of rapid variability, imply that the
Observational Gamma-ray Cosmology
We discuss how measurements of the absorption of gamma‐rays from GeV to TeV energies via pair production on the extragalactic background light (EBL) can probe important issues in galaxy formation.
THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND: Measurements and Implications ⁄
▪ Abstract The cosmic infrared background records much of the radiant energy released by processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the
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We assess the constraints imposed by the observed extragalactic background light (EBL) on the cosmic history of star formation and the stellar-mass density today. The logarithmic slope of the galaxy
Multifrequency Observations of the Blazar 3C 279 in January 2006
We report first results of a multifrequency campaign from radio to hard X-ray energies of the prominent gamma-ray blazar 3C 279, which was organised around an INTEGRAL ToO observation in January