Vertical skeletal change associated with Andresen, Harvold, and Begg treatment.


A retrospective cephalometric study was carried out to compare the vertical skeletal changes between patients treated with an Andresen (30), Harvold (19), or Begg (30) appliance, and an untreated control group (24). It was found that angular changes between the anterior cranial base, the maxillary and mandibular planes, and the y axis of growth showed a… (More)


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