Vertical root fracture: prevalence, etiology, and diagnosis.

  title={Vertical root fracture: prevalence, etiology, and diagnosis.},
  author={Helga Haueisen and Kathrin Gaertner and Lea Kaiser and Dominik Trohorsch and Detlef Heidemann},
  journal={Quintessence international},
  volume={44 7},
A vertical root fracture (VRF) is a frustrating complication that may occur following root canal treatment, and in almost every case leads to the extraction of the affected tooth. This type of fracture is usually diagnosed by secondary symptoms that develop some time after primary treatment, often when prosthodontic restoration has already been completed. The fracture line itself is often not directly visible, and therefore clinical and radiographic signs and symptoms indicate the diagnosis… CONTINUE READING

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