Vertical force and torque analysis during mechanical preparation of extracted teeth using hand ProTaper instruments.


The purpose was to measure and analyse the vertical force and torque developed in the wider and narrower root canals during hand ProTaper instrumentation. Twenty human incisors were divided in two groups. Upper incisors were experimental model for the wide, while the lower incisors for the narrow root canals. Measurements of the force and torque were done… (More)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-4477.2010.00252.x


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