Vertebrate limb development: moving from classical morphogen gradients to an integrated 4-dimensional patterning system.

@article{Benazet2009VertebrateLD,
  title={Vertebrate limb development: moving from classical morphogen gradients to an integrated 4-dimensional patterning system.},
  author={Jean-Denis Benazet and Rolf Zeller},
  journal={Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology},
  year={2009},
  volume={1 4},
  pages={a001339}
}
A wealth of classical embryological manipulation experiments taking mainly advantage of the chicken limb buds identified the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) as the respective ectodermal and mesenchymal key signaling centers coordinating proximodistal (PD) and anteroposterior (AP) limb axis development. These experiments inspired Wolpert's French flag model, which is a classic among morphogen gradient models. Subsequent molecular and genetic analysis in… CONTINUE READING
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