Vertebrate head induction by anterior primitive endoderm.

  title={Vertebrate head induction by anterior primitive endoderm.},
  author={T Bouwmeester and Luc Leyns},
  journal={BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology},
  volume={19 10},
In vertebrates the antero-posterior organization of the embryonic body axis is thought to result from the activity of two separate centers, the head organizer and the trunk organizer, as operationally defined by Spemann in the 1920s. Current molecular studies have supported the existence of a trunk organizer activity while the presence of a distinct head inducing center has remained elusive. Mainly based on analyses of headless mutants in mice, it has been proposed that the anterior axial… CONTINUE READING