Verification of mid-ocean ballast water exchange using naturally occurring coastal tracers.


We examined methods for verifying whether or not ships have performed mid-ocean ballast water exchange (BWE) on four commercial vessels operating in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. During BWE, a ship replaces the coastal water in its ballast tanks with water drawn from the open ocean, which is considered to harbor fewer organisms capable of establishing in… (More)


Figures and Tables

Sorry, we couldn't extract any figures or tables for this paper.

Slides referencing similar topics