Verification and Convergence Properties of Particle-in-Cell Codes

Particle-in-cell methods have been widely throughout plasma physics over 50 years. However, there is confusion about the mathematical model used for particle-in-cell (PIC) codes and whether PIC converges or not. Our hypothesis is Klimontovich equation with finite-size particle is the model described by PIC codes. We perform numerical study to compare PIC… (More)