Verbal overshadowing of visual memories: Some things are better left unsaid

  title={Verbal overshadowing of visual memories: Some things are better left unsaid},
  author={Jonathan W. Schooler and Tonya Y Engstler-Schooler},
  journal={Cognitive Psychology},
It is widely believed that verbal processing generally improves memory performance. However, in a series of six experiments, verbalizing the appearance of previously seen visual stimuli impaired subsequent recognition performance. In Experiment 1, subjects viewed a videotape including a salient individual. Later, some subjects described the individual's face. Subjects who verbalized the face performed less well on a subsequent recognition test than control subjects who did not engage in memory… Expand
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