Venus Winds Are Zonal and Retrograde Below the Clouds

@article{Counselman1979VenusWA,
  title={Venus Winds Are Zonal and Retrograde Below the Clouds},
  author={Charles C. Counselman and S. A. Gourevitch and R. King and George Loriot and Ronald G. Prinn},
  journal={Science},
  year={1979},
  volume={205},
  pages={85 - 87}
}
Winds in the lower atmosphere of Venus, inferred from three-dimensional radio interferometric tracking of the descents of the Pioneer day and north probes, are predominantly easterly with speeds of about 1 meter per second near the surface, 50 meters per second at the bottom of the clouds, and more than 200 meters per second within the densest, middle cloud layer. Between about 25 and 55 kilometers altitude the average flow was slanted equatorward, with superimposed wavelike motions and… 
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References

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Preliminary Results of the Pioneer Venus Small Probe Net Flux Radiometer Experiment
TLDR
Net radiation measurements in the atmosphere of Venus indicate that the bulk of the atmosphere is radiatively cooling at high latitudes and heating at low latitudes, indicating planetwide stratification.
Thermal Contrast in the Atmosphere of Venus: Initial Appraisal from Pioneer Venus Probe Data
TLDR
The altitude profiles of temperature and pressure measured during the descent of the four Pioneer Venus probes show small contrast below the clouds but significant differences within the clouds at altitudes from 45 to 61 kilometers, consistent with cyclostrophic balance of zonal winds.
Wind Velocities on Venus: Vector Determination by Radio Interferometry
To determine the wind directions and speeds on Venus, as each Pioneer probe fell to the surface we tracked its motion in three dimensions using a combination of Doppler and long-baseline radio
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A fundamental aspect of the Venus wind system is discussed that has apparently escaped notice. If Venus has a negligible meridional gradient of surface pressure, as the Venera data suggest, but has a
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TLDR
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