Venus Upper Atmosphere Neutral Gas Composition: First Observations of the Diurnal Variations

@article{Niemann1979VenusUA,
  title={Venus Upper Atmosphere Neutral Gas Composition: First Observations of the Diurnal Variations},
  author={Hasso Bernhard Otto Niemann and Richard E. Hartle and Alan E. Hedin and Wayne T. Kasprzak and Nelson W. Spencer and Donald M. Hunten and George R. Carignan},
  journal={Science},
  year={1979},
  volume={205},
  pages={54 - 56}
}
Measurements of the composition, temperature, and diurnal variations of the major neutral constituents in the thermosphere of Venus are being made with a quadrupole mass spectrometer on the Pioneer Venus orbiter. Concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, molecular nitrogen, atomic oxygen, and helium are presented, in addition to an empirical model of the data. The concentrations of the heavy gases, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and molecular nitrogen, rapidly decrease from the… 
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References

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TLDR
Measurements in situ of the neutral composition and temperature of the thermosphere of Venus are being made with a quadrupole mass spectrometer on the Pioneer Venus orbiter, with O/CO2 ratios in the upper atmosphere being greater than was commonly expected.
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The upper atmospheric mass spectrometers flown on Viking 1 and 2 are described, and results obtained for the composition and structure of Mars' upper atmosphere are summarized. Carbon dioxide is the
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Abstract Absorption of solar radiation in the dayside Venusian thermosphere forces a circulation cell with vertical motions upward on the dayside and downward on the nightside with maximum amplitude
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Orbiter infrared measurements of the Venus atmosphere in the 60- to 140-kilometer region show very small diurnal temperature differences near the cloud tops, increasing somewhat at higher levels. The
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