Venus: Mass, Gravity Field, Atmosphere, and Ionosphere as Measured by the Mariner 10 Dual-Frequency Radio System

  title={Venus: Mass, Gravity Field, Atmosphere, and Ionosphere as Measured by the Mariner 10 Dual-Frequency Radio System},
  author={H. Taylor Howard and G. Leonard Tyler and Gunnar Fjeldbo and Arvydas J. Kliore and Gerald S. Levy and Dietrich Brunn and Richard M. Dickinson and R. E. Edelson and W. L. Martin and R. B. Postal and Boris L. Seidel and Tadas Sesplaukis and D. Shirley and Charles T. Stelzried and Donald Sweetnam and Arthur I. Zygielbaum and Pasquale Bernard Esposito and J. D. Anderson and Irwin I. Shapiro and Robert D. Reasenberg},
  pages={1297 - 1301}
Analysis of the Doppler tracking data near encounter yields a value for the ratio of the mass of the sun to that of Venus of 408,523.9 � 1.2, which is in good agreement with prior determinations based on data from Mariner 2 and Mariner 5. Preliminary analysis indicates that the magnitudes of the fractional differences in the principal moments of inertia of Venus are no larger than 10-4, given that the effects of gravity-field harmonics higher than the second are negligible. Additional analysis… 

Mercury: Results on Mass, Radius, Ionosphere, and Atmosphere from Mariner 10 Dual-Frequency Radio Signals

No evidence of either an ionosphere or an atmosphere was found, with the data yielding upper bounds on the electron density on the dayside and nightside and an inferred upper bound on the surface pressure of 10-8 millibar.

Gravity Fields

Doppler radio tracking of deep space probes near extra-terrestrial bodies has provided information on the internal mass distribution for Jupiter, Mars, the Moon, Venus, and Mercury. The more detailed

Viking radio occultation measurements of the atmosphere and topography of Mars: Data acquired during 1 Martian year of tracking

The S (2.3 GHz) and X band (8.4 GHz) tracking links with the Viking orbiters have been used to study the atmosphere and topography of Mars at latitudes ranging from 74°S to 73°N. Data acquired in the

A comprehensive model of the Venus ionosphere

The coupled time-dependent continuity-momentum and energy balance equations were simultaneously solved for CO2+, O2+, O+, He+, and H+ densities and electron and ion temperatures for an altitude range

Venus gravity - A harmonic analysis and geophysical implications

An improved model of Venusian global gravity has been obtained by fitting a tenth degree and order spherical harmonic series to 78 orbital arcs of Doppler tracking data from Pioneer Venus Orbiter.

Near-terminator Venus ionosphere: Evidence for a dawn/dusk asymmetry in the thermosphere

[1] Recent models of the near-terminator ionosphere of Venus constructed using neutral density profiles from the VTS3 model of Hedin et al. (1983) have shown that altitudes of the electron density

Structure of the Atmosphere of Venus up to 110 Kilometers: Preliminary Results from the Four Pioneer Venus Entry Probes

The four Pioneer Venus entry probes transmitted data of good quality on the structure of the atmosphere below the clouds, finding that the atmosphere is nearly isothermal around 100 kilometers (175 to 180 K) and appears to exhibit a sizable temperature wave between 60 and 70 kilometers.

Viking Radio Occultation Measurements of the Martian Atmosphere and Topography: Primary Mission Coverage

Radio occultation measurements were made at approximately 50 locations on Mars with the Viking Orbiter 1 S (2.3 GHz) and X (8.4 GHz) band tracking links during October 1976. The measurements have



Venus: Radar Determination of Gravity Potential

A method for the determination of the gravity potential of Venus from multiple-frequency radar measurements based on the strong frequency dependence of the absorption of radio waves in Venus' atmosphere, which appears to be associated with topographic minima.

Venus: Lower Atmosphere Not Measured

It is concluded that neither spacecraft reported on atmospheric conditions near the level of the mean surface, but extrapolations of the measurements yield surface values for mid-latitudes which support radiometric and radar data on temperature and atmospheric absorption.

Radio propagation measurements of pulsed plasma streams from the Sun using Pioneer spacecraft

Radio signals at 50 and 425 MHz are sent from Stanford to spacecraft in deep space to determine the electron number density, structure, and behavior of the interplanetary medium. Total electron

Venus: Atmospheric Motion and Structure from Mariner 10 Pictures

The Mariner 10 television camieras imaged the planet Venus in the visible and near ultraviolet for a period of 8 days at resolutions ranging from 100 meters to 130 kilometers, showing evidence of large-scale convection that persists in spite of the main zonal motion.

Some Preliminary Results of the 70‐cm Radar Studies of Venus

Delay-Doppler positions of three radar features are given for observations made during the 1964, 1967, and 1969 inferior conjunctions of Venus. The latitude and longitude of each feature were

Resonance Rotation of Venus

Combination of two types of radar data shows the orbital plane and equator of Venus to be included by less than 2 degrees, and the sidereal rotation period to be 243.09 � 0.18 days

Radar Determination of the Radius of Venus

The radius of Venus has been determined from radar-range data taken at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Goldstone facility from equations of motion of the solar-system fit to this time-delay data.

Mariner 10 Venus Encounter

The Mariner 10 spacecraft encountered Venus and the preplanned encounter science sequence was executed satisfactorily, accomplishing all objectives despite a number of spacecraft problems that had occurred in the early phases of the flight.