Ventricular external constraint by the lung and pericardium during positive end-expiratory pressure.

We studied intra- and extrapericardial surface pressures (Ppe and Pex) over the left ventricle with air-filled flat balloons in six dogs under different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Pex reflected lung constraint and the transpericardial pressure (Ppe-Pex) reflected the elastic recoil of the… (More)