Ventricular echo beats and retrograde atrioventricular nodal exits in the dog heart: multiplicity in their electrophysiologic and anatomic characteristics.


INTRODUCTION A single ventricular echo beat frequently is induced in the dog heart by ventricular pacing, but it has not been investigated using a concomitant ablative technique. We studied the effects of ablating the anterior atrial input to the AV node on ventricular echo beats induced in the dog heart to evaluate their electrophysiologic characteristics… (More)


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