Ventricular constraint in the fetus and newborn.

  title={Ventricular constraint in the fetus and newborn.},
  author={Daniel Allen Grant},
  journal={The Canadian journal of cardiology},
  volume={15 1},
Birth is accompanied by a series of rapid adaptations of the cardiovascular system, one of the most notable being a doubling of left ventricular (LV) stroke volume. What makes this increase in LV stroke volume remarkable is that before birth the heart functions at a maximal level that cannot easily be increased with acute interventions such as volume infusion. Although changes in heart rate, contractility and afterload contribute to the adaptations of birth they do not adequately explain the… CONTINUE READING


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