Venous and cerebrospinal fluid flow in multiple sclerosis: A case‐control study

@article{Sundstrm2010VenousAC,
  title={Venous and cerebrospinal fluid flow in multiple sclerosis: A case‐control study},
  author={Peter Sundstr{\"o}m and Anders W{\aa}hlin and Khalid Ambarki and Richard Birgander and Anders Eklund and Jan Malm},
  journal={Annals of Neurology},
  year={2010},
  volume={68}
}
The prevailing view on multiple sclerosis etiopathogenesis has been challenged by the suggested new entity chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. To test this hypothesis, we studied 21 relapsing‐remitting multiple sclerosis cases and 20 healthy controls with phase‐contrast magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, in multiple sclerosis cases we performed contrast‐enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. We found no differences regarding internal jugular venous outflow, aqueductal… 

Extracranial Venous Drainage Pattern in Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Controls: Application of the 2011 Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency

TLDR
The hypothesis that CCSVI plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of MS is challenged as there was no statistically significant difference between MS patients and healthy controls regarding CCSvi prevalence.

Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: diagnostic, pathogenetic, clinical and treatment perspectives

TLDR
There is an urgent need to define and validate the spectrum of cranial/extracranial venous anomalies and to establish reliable, diagnostic gold-standard test(s) for CCSVI.

Evidence against the Involvement of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis. A Case-Control Study

TLDR
This case-control study provides compelling evidence against the involvement of CCSVI in multiple sclerosis.

No association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis

TLDR
The findings add to previous data pointing against a causative role of CCSVI in MS and suggest that the assessment of pediatric-onset MS may provide a unique window of opportunity to study hypothesized risk factors in close temporal association with the onset of the disease.

Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics in patients with multiple sclerosis: a phase contrast magnetic resonance study.

TLDR
CSF flow at the level of the cerebral aqueduct was evaluated quantitatively by phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) and found significantly higher caudocranial and craniocaudal CSF flow volumes in the MS patients compared with the controls, which may support the venous occlusion theory.

Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and venous stenoses in multiple sclerosis

TLDR
Assessment of the prevalence of CCSVI in Danish MS patients using sonography and comparing these findings with MRI measures of venous flow and morphology finds that the disease is more likely to be an autoimmune disease than a vascular disease.

Extra-cranial venous flow in patients with multiple sclerosis

Current thoughts on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis

TLDR
MS is a complex and devastating disease with imperfect treatment strategies and further research is needed to determine what role, if any, venous insufficiency plays in the course of MS and also the most appropriate treatment course based on those results.

Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound assessment of cerebrospinal venous flow in multiple sclerosis patients and controls

  • E. SchraubenS. Kohn A. Field
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
  • 2017
TLDR
Three complementary imaging modalities were used to investigate the chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency hypothesis in patients with multiple sclerosis and two age- and sex-matched control groups: healthy volunteers and patients with other neurological diseases.

["Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency" in multiple sclerosis - is multiple sclerosis a disease of the cerebrospinal venous outflow system?].

TLDR
The present conclusive data confuting the theory of CCSVI in MS should lead to reluctance with respect to the interventional treatment of possible venous anomalies in MS patients.
...

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