Venom is beneficial but not essential for development and survival of Nasonia.

Parasitoid wasps sting and inject venom in arthropod hosts, which alters host metabolism and development while keeping the host alive for several days, presumably to induce benefits for the parasitoid young.Here we investigate the consequences of host envenomation on development and fitness of wasp larvae in the ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis, by… CONTINUE READING